Vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19 severity - plausibly linked by latitude, ethnicity, impacts on cytokines, ACE2 and thrombosis
Journal of Internal Medicine. 2022;289(1):97-115
Background: SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus infection ranges from asymptomatic through to fatal COVID-19 characterized by a 'cytokine storm' and lung failure Vitamin D deficiency has been postulated as a determinant of severity Objectives: To review the evidence relevant to vitamin D and COVID-19
Analysis of antithrombotic medication of traditional Chinese medicine based on data mining and network pharmacology
Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs. 2021;52(4):1063-1072
Objective: Deep venous thrombosis is an important cause of death and poor prognosis in critically ill patients with COVID-19 This paper excavates the prescription rules of TCM in preventing and treating thrombosis, so as to provide reference for Chinese medicine in preventing and treating deep venous thrombosis in critically ill patients with COVID-19 Methods: Based on the journal literature collected from CNKI and Wan-fang database, excel 2010 and Clementine 12 0 software were used to analyze the association rules of the included standard traditional Chinese medicine, and analyze the enrichment of GO and KEGG in the core drug groups with the method of network pharmacology The mechanism of action was studied and verified by molecular docking Results: A total of 356 antithrombotic prescriptions were screened from CNKI and Wan-fang database, 25 high-frequency herbs were found, and seven high-frequency drug groups were obtained by further correlation analysis Among them, there were 23 effective chemical components in the core drug group "Honghua (Carthami Flos)-Taoren (Persicae Semen)-Chishao (Paeoniae Radix Rubra)-Chuanxiong (Chuanxiong Rhizoma)", 41 intersection targets between core drug group and thrombus PPI network mainly involved key target proteins such as IL6, VEGFA, CASP3, ALB, EGFR, MAPK8, etc Go functional enrichment analysis revealed 971 biological process entries (P < 0 05), and 105 pathways (P < 0 05) were obtained from KEGG enrichment, which mainly involved Kaposi's sarcoma herpes virus infection, human cytomegalovirus infection, fluid shear force, atherosclerosis, hepatitis B and other pathways The results showed that luteolin, quercetin and baicalein were the active components with better binding ability to IL-6 Conclusion: The key active components in the core drug group can play an antithrombotic role by regulating key targets such as IL-6, and by means of the pathways of Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus infection, human cytomegalovirus infection, fluid shear force, atherosclerosis, hepatitis B, etc , with view to providing a reference for the prevention and treatment of deep vein thrombosis in critically ill patients with COVID-19
SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine-Induced Immune Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia
The New England Journal of Medicine. 2021
Risk of thromboembolism in patients with COVID-19 who are using hormonal contraception
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2021;2021(3)
Hypercoagulability in Patients With Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19): Identification of Arterial and Venous Thromboembolism in the Abdomen, Pelvis, and Lower Extremities
Ajr Am J Roentgenol. 2021;216(1):104-105
The purpose of this article is to describe arterial and venous thromboembolism in the abdomen, pelvis, and lower extremities in patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Eighty-two patients with COVID-19 who underwent abdominal ultrasound or CT were retrospectively compared with 82 patients without COVID-19 for thromboembolism and solid-organ infarction. Nine (11%) patients with COVID-19 had thromboembolic findings, with medium to large arterial thrombi in five. One patient without COVID-19 had known portal vein thrombus on CT. Thromboembolic findings occurred more frequently in patients with than without COVID-19 (p = 0.02).
Preparedness and activities of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 convalescent plasma bank in the Veneto region (Italy): An organizational model for future emergencies
Transfusion and Apheresis Science : Official Journal of the World Apheresis Association : Official Journal of the European Society for Haemapheresis. 2021;:103154
BACKGROUND Convalescent plasma (CP) has been used in the past in various pandemics, in particular in H1N1, SARS and MERS infections. In Spring 2020, when ongoing the SARS-CoV-2 pandemics, the Veneto Region (V-R) has proposed setting-up an anti-SARS-CoV-2 CP (CCP) Bank, with the aim of preparing a supply of CCP immediately available in case of subsequest epidemic waves. MATERIALS AND METHODS Key-points to be developed for a quick set-up of the V-R CCP Bank have been recruitment of donors recovered from COVID-19 infection, laboratory analysis for the biological qualification of the CCP units, including titre of neutralizing antibodies and reduction of pathogens, according to National Blood Centre (CNS) Directives, adaptation of the V-R Information Technology systems and cost analysis. Some activities, including diagnostic and viral inactivation processes, have been centralized in 2 or 3 sites. Laboratory analysis upon preliminary admission of the donor included all tests required by the Italian laws and the CNS directives. RESULTS From April to August 2020, 3,298 people have contacted the V-R Blood Transfusion Services: of these, 1,632 have been evaluated and examined as first time donors and those found to be suitable have carried out 955 donations, from which 2,626 therapeutic fractions have been obtained, at a cost around 215,00 Euro. Since October 2020, the number of COVID-19 inpatients has had a surge with a heavy hospital overload. Moreover, the high request of CCP therapy by clinicians has been just as unexpected, showing a wide therapeutic use. CONCLUSIONS The organizational model here presented, which has allowed the rapid collection of a large amount of CCP, could be useful when facing new pandemic outbreaks, especially in low and middle income countries, with generally acceptable costs.
Saddle pulmonary embolism in a pediatric patient with nephrotic syndrome and recent COVID-19 pneumonia: A case report
The American Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2021
The pediatric population accounts for a small portion of those with severe disease related to COVID-19 There are few published reports of hypercoagulable states in children with COVID-19 We describe an 11-year-old male with nephrotic syndrome who required inpatient treatment for COVID-19 pneumonia eight weeks prior He returned to the emergency department with vomiting, tachypnea and was found to have a pulmonary embolism In this case report, we discuss the risk factors for, presentation and evaluation of hypercoagulable state and its relation to COVID-19 in a pediatric patient
Clinical predictors of coagulopathy events in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 disease
Journal of the American College of Cardiology (JACC). 2021;77(18):3162-3162
Case Report: Cerebrovascular Events Associated With Bacterial and SARS-CoV-2 Infections in an Adolescent
Frontiers in neurology. 2021;12:606617
Neurologic manifestations associated with Covid-19 are increasingly reported, especially stroke and acute cerebrovascular events. Beyond cardiovascular risk factors associated with age, some young adults without medical or cardiovascular history had stroke as a presenting feature of Covid-19. Suggested stroke mechanisms in this setting are inflammatory storm, subsequent hypercoagulability, and vasculitis. To date, a handful of pediatric stroke cases associated with Covid-19 have been reported, either with a cardioembolic mechanism or a focal cerebral arteriopathy. We report the case of an adolescent who presented with febrile meningism and stupor. Clinical, biological, and radiological features favored the diagnosis of Lemierre syndrome (LS), with Fusobacterium necrophorum infection (sphenoid sinusitis and meningitis) and intracranial vasculitis. The patient had concurrent SARS-CoV-2 infection. Despite medical and surgical antimicrobial treatment, stroke prevention, and venous thrombosis prevention, he presented with severe cerebrovascular complications. Venous thrombosis and stroke were observed, with an extension of intracranial vasculitis, and lead to death. As both F. necrophorum and SARS-CoV-2 enhance inflammation, coagulation, and activate endothelial cells, we discuss how this coinfection may have potentiated and aggravated the usual course of LS. The potentiation by SARS-CoV-2 of vascular and thrombotic effects of a bacterial infection may represent an underreported cerebrovascular injury mechanism in Covid-19 patients. These findings emphasize the variety of mechanisms underlying stroke in this disease. Moreover, in the setting of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, we discuss in what extent sanitary measures, namely, lockdown and fear to attend medical facilities, may have delayed diagnosis and influenced outcomes. This case also emphasizes the role of clinical assessment and the limits of telemedicine for acute neurological condition diagnosis.
Complications of Tranexamic Acid in Orthopedic Lower Limb Surgery: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
BioMed research international. 2021;2021:6961540
OBJECTIVE Tranexamic acid (TXA) is increasingly used in orthopedic surgery to reduce blood loss; however, there are concerns about the risk of venous thromboembolic (VTE) complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate TXA safety in patients undergoing lower limb orthopedic surgical procedures. DESIGN A meta-analysis was performed on the PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases in January 2020 using the following string (Tranexamic acid) AND ((knee) OR (hip) OR (ankle) OR (lower limb)) to identify RCTs about TXA use in patients undergoing every kind of lower limb surgical orthopedic procedures, with IV, IA, or oral administration, and compared with a control arm to quantify the VTE complication rates. RESULTS A total of 140 articles documenting 9,067 patients receiving TXA were identified. Specifically, 82 studies focused on TKA, 41 on THA, and 17 on other surgeries, including anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, intertrochanteric fractures, and meniscectomies. The intravenous TXA administration protocol was studied in 111 articles, the intra-articular in 45, and the oral one in 7 articles. No differences in terms of thromboembolic complications were detected between the TXA and control groups neither in the overall population (2.4% and 2.8%, respectively) nor in any subgroup based on the surgical procedure and TXA administration route. CONCLUSIONS There is an increasing interest in TXA use, which has been recently broadened from the most common joint replacement procedures to the other types of surgeries. Overall, TXA did not increase the risk of VTE complications, regardless of the administration route, thus supporting the safety of using TXA for lower limb orthopedic surgical procedures.