Assessment of Hemostatic Profile in Neonates with Intrauterine Growth Restriction: A Systematic Review of Literature
Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis. 2023
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) affects nearly 10 to 15% of pregnancies and is responsible for many short- and long-term adverse consequences, including hemostatic derangement. Both thrombotic and hemorrhagic events are described in the perinatal period in these neonates. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature on the laboratory studies used to evaluate the hemostatic system of the IUGR small for gestational age neonate. We reviewed the current literature via PubMed and Scopus until September 2022. Following our inclusion/exclusion criteria, we finally included 60 studies in our review. Thrombocytopenia, characterized as hyporegenerative and a kinetic upshot of reduced platelet production due to in utero chronic hypoxia, was the main finding of most studies focusing on growth-restricted neonates, in most cases is mild and usually resolves spontaneously with the first 2 weeks of life. In regard to coagulation, growth-restricted newborns present with prolonged standard coagulation tests. Data regarding coagulation factors, fibrinolytic system, and anticoagulant proteins are scarce and conflicting, mainly due to confounding factors. As thromboelastography/rotational thromboelastometry (TEG/ROTEM) provides a more precise evaluation of the in vivo coagulation process compared with standard coagulation tests, its use in transfusion guidance is fundamental. Only one study regarding TEG/ROTEM was retrieved from this population, where no difference in ROTEM parameters compared with appropriate for gestational age neonates was found. Despite the laboratory aberrations, no correlation could be achieved with clinical manifestations of bleeding or thrombosis in the studies included. More studies are needed to assess hemostasis in IUGR neonates and guide targeted therapeutic interventions.
Hemostasis in Neonates with Perinatal Hypoxia-Laboratory Approach: A Systematic Review
Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis. 2022
Birth asphyxia, with an estimated prevalence of 1 to 6 per 1,000 live births, may lead to multiorgan dysfunction due to impaired oxygen and/or blood supply to various organ systems, including the hemostatic system. Coagulopathy, a common complication of perinatal asphyxia, has been described since the 1960s. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature for records on the use of hemostasis tests in the evaluation of coagulation disorders, in neonates who had suffered from perinatal hypoxia or asphyxia. We identified published studies by searching PubMed and Scopus, up until April 2022. The literature search retrieved 37 articles fulfilling the inclusion criteria of the review. According to the bibliography, thrombocytopenia is commonly associated with perinatal hypoxia/asphyxia. The thrombocytopenia is usually described as mild and platelets return to normal levels by the 10th day of life. Additionally, hypoxic neonates usually present with a hypocoagulable profile, as reflected by the prolongation of standard coagulation tests, including prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and international normalized ratio, findings commonly associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation, and by the reduction of the levels of the physiologic inhibition of coagulation system. A few studies thus far using ROTEM/TEG in hypoxic neonates have come to the same conclusion as well; hypoxic newborns seem to be characterized by a hypocoagulable profile compared with healthy neonates. It should be emphasized, however, that standard coagulation tests provide only a rough estimation of the true bleeding or thrombotic risk of hypoxic neonates. On the contrary, viscoelastic methods seem to be more precise in the early detection of hemostasis disorders in the neonatal population. However, until now, there was uncertainty as to the most appropriate coagulation assays for diagnosis and management of coagulation derangement in neonates with perinatal hypoxia indicating the need for further research on this field.