Reduced dose intravenous immunoglobulin does not decrease transplant-related complications in adults given related donor marrow allografts
Biology of Blood & Marrow Transplantation. 1999;5((6):):369-78.
Graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) and infection are major complications of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) given at a dose of 500 mg/kg/wk has been shown to decrease the risk of acute GVHD, interstitial pneumonia, and infection in adults early after allogeneic transplantation. The current study is a controlled trial to determine whether a lower total dose of IVIg given with pretransplant loading reduces the incidence of transplant-related complications. In a randomized trial of 241 patients > or =20 years of age who were given related donor marrow allografts, 121 individuals receiving Ig prophylaxis (500 mg/kg/d loading from day -6 to -1 and then 100 mg/kg every 3 days from day 3 to 90) were compared with 120 control patients who did not receive IVIg. Randomization was stratified by human leucocyte antigen-matching, remission status of malignancy, GVHD prophylaxis, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) serology. The study was powered to detect a reduction in acute GVHD by 18% and a decrease in transplant-related mortality by 17%. Pretransplant IVIg loading and posttransplant maintenance achieved median serum IgG levels >1350 mg/dL, which were approximately twofold greater than the untreated controls (p<0.01). White blood cell and platelet recoveries were similar for the two groups, although control patients required fewer units of platelets per day (2.5 vs. 3.3, p = 0.008). No significant differences in the incidence of CMV infection, interstitial pneumonia, or bacteremia were observed. The incidence of acute GVHD did not differ between the two groups; however, acute GVHD was less frequent among IVIg recipients achieving maximum serum IgG levels >3000 mg/dL (60 vs. 79%). Neither transplant-related mortality nor disease-free survival was significantly altered by Ig prophylaxis. However, the cumulative incidence of relapse of malignancy was higher in IVIg recipients than in controls (31 vs. 18%, p = 0.03). Multivariable regression analysis demonstrated a 1.89 increased relative risk of relapse for individuals given IVIg (p = 0.021). We conclude that pretransplant loading and a shorter course and lower total dose of IVIg prophylaxis did not appear to decrease the risk of acute GVHD or mortality among adults receiving related donor marrow transplants. Note, IVIg administration may be associated with an increased risk of recurrent malignancy, a finding that warrants further investigation.
A controlled trial of long-term administration of intravenous immunoglobulin to prevent late infection and chronic graft-vs.-host disease after marrow transplantation: clinical outcome and effect on subsequent immune recovery
Biology of Blood & Marrow Transplantation. 1996;2((1):):44-53.
To determine whether intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) given monthly from day 90 to day 360 posttransplantation decreased the incidence of late infection, chronic graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD), and obliterative bronchiolitis after marrow transplantation, patients were assigned randomly to receive either IVIg (500 mg/kg/month) or no IVIg prophylaxis. Participants were registered before transplantation, and 250 patients (123 IVIg and 127 control) were evaluable for events after day 100. The two groups were balanced for age, marrow source, cytomegalovirus (CMV) seropositivity, pretransplantation conditioning, and prophylaxis for infection and GVHD. Between days 100 and 365 posttransplantation, the incidence of bacteremia or septicemia per 100 patient-days of risk was 0.10 in the IVIg group and 0.12 in the controls (p = not significant). During the same period, the incidence of localized infection was marginally higher in control patients than in IVIg recipients (0.44 vs. 0.24, respectively; relative risk [RR] 1.46, p < 0.07). Administration of IVIg prophylaxis had no effect on survival, the incidence of obliterative bronchiolitis, severity of airflow obstruction, or the incidence or mortality of chronic GVHD. After discontinuing IVIg prophylaxis at day 360, subsequent recovery of endogeneous humoral immunity was impaired (serum IgG1 and IgA levels were significantly lower than controls at day 730), and total infections were less common in the second year in control patients than in former IVIg recipients (0.12 vs 0.19, respectively; RR 0.61, p = 0.03). We conclude that in the absence of hypogammaglobulinemia, monthly administration of IVIg given from day 90 to 360 does not reduce late complications and may impair long-term humoral immune recovery after marrow transplantation.