A Post Hoc Analysis of Osmotherapy Use in the Erythropoietin in Traumatic Brain Injury Study-Associations With Acute Kidney Injury and Mortality
Skrifvars MB, Bailey M, Moore E, Mårtensson J, French C, Presneill J, Nichol A, Little L, Duranteau J, Huet O, et al
Critical care medicine. 2021
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OBJECTIVES Mannitol and hypertonic saline are used to treat raised intracerebral pressure in patients with traumatic brain injury, but their possible effects on kidney function and mortality are unknown. DESIGN A post hoc analysis of the erythropoietin trial in traumatic brain injury (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00987454) including daily data on mannitol and hypertonic saline use. SETTING Twenty-nine university-affiliated teaching hospitals in seven countries. PATIENTS A total of 568 patients treated in the ICU for 48 hours without acute kidney injury of whom 43 (7%) received mannitol and 170 (29%) hypertonic saline. INTERVENTIONS None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS We categorized acute kidney injury stage according to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcome classification and defined acute kidney injury as any Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcome stage-based changes from the admission creatinine. We tested associations between early (first 2 d) mannitol and hypertonic saline and time to acute kidney injury up to ICU discharge and death up to 180 days with Cox regression analysis. Subsequently, acute kidney injury developed more often in patients receiving mannitol (35% vs 10%; p < 0.001) and hypertonic saline (23% vs 10%; p < 0.001). On competing risk analysis including factors associated with acute kidney injury, mannitol (hazard ratio, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.2-4.3; p = 0.01), but not hypertonic saline (hazard ratio, 1.6; 95% CI, 0.9-2.8; p = 0.08), was independently associated with time to acute kidney injury. In a Cox model for predicting time to death, both the use of mannitol (hazard ratio, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.1-4.1; p = 0.03) and hypertonic saline (hazard ratio, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.02-3.2; p = 0.04) were associated with time to death. CONCLUSIONS In this post hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial, the early use of mannitol, but not hypertonic saline, was independently associated with an increase in acute kidney injury. Our findings suggest the need to further evaluate the use and choice of osmotherapy in traumatic brain injury.
Small volume resuscitation with 20% albumin in intensive care: physiological effects : The SWIPE randomised clinical trial
Martensson J, Bihari S, Bannard-Smith J, Glassford NJ, Lloyd-Donald P, Cioccari L, Luethi N, Tanaka A, Crisman M, Rey de Castro N, et al
Intensive Care Medicine. 2018;44((11):):1797-1806.
PURPOSE We set out to assess the resuscitation fluid requirements and physiological and clinical responses of intensive care unit (ICU) patients resuscitated with 20% albumin versus 4-5% albumin. METHODS We performed a randomised controlled trial in 321 adult patients requiring fluid resuscitation within 48 h of admission to three ICUs in Australia and the UK. RESULTS The cumulative volume of resuscitation fluid at 48 h (primary outcome) was lower in the 20% albumin group than in the 4-5% albumin group [median difference - 600 ml, 95% confidence interval (CI) - 800 to - 400; P < 0.001]. The 20% albumin group had lower cumulative fluid balance at 48 h (mean difference - 576 ml, 95% CI - 1033 to - 119; P = 0.01). Peak albumin levels were higher but sodium and chloride levels lower in the 20% albumin group. Median (interquartile range) duration of mechanical ventilation was 12.0 h (7.6, 33.1) in the 20% albumin group and 15.3 h (7.7, 58.1) in the 4-5% albumin group (P = 0.13); the proportion of patients commenced on renal replacement therapy after randomization was 3.3% and 4.2% (P = 0.67), respectively, and the proportion discharged alive from ICU was 97.4% and 91.1% (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS Resuscitation with 20% albumin decreased resuscitation fluid requirements, minimized positive early fluid balance and was not associated with any evidence of harm compared with 4-5% albumin. These findings support the safety of further exploration of resuscitation with 20% albumin in larger randomised trials. TRIAL REGISTRATION http://www.anzctr.org.au . Identifier ACTRN12615000349549.
Age of red cells for transfusion and outcomes in critically ill adults
Cooper DJ, McQuilten ZK, Nichol A, Ady B, Aubron C, Bailey M, Bellomo R, Gantner D, Irving DO, Kaukonen KM, et al
The New England Journal of Medicine. 2017;377((19):):1858-1867
Background It is uncertain whether the duration of red-cell storage affects mortality after transfusion among critically ill adults. Methods In an international, multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial, we assigned critically ill adults to receive either the freshest available, compatible, allogeneic red cells (short-term storage group) or standard-issue (oldest available), compatible, allogeneic red cells (long-term storage group). The primary outcome was 90-day mortality. Results From November 2012 through December 2016, at 59 centers in five countries, 4994 patients underwent randomization and 4919 (98.5%) were included in the primary analysis. Among the 2457 patients in the short-term storage group, the mean storage duration was 11.8 days. Among the 2462 patients in the long-term storage group, the mean storage duration was 22.4 days. At 90 days, there were 610 deaths (24.8%) in the short-term storage group and 594 (24.1%) in the long-term storage group (absolute risk difference, 0.7 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.7 to 3.1; P=0.57). At 180 days, the absolute risk difference was 0.4 percentage points (95% CI, -2.1 to 3.0; P=0.75). Most of the prespecified secondary measures showed no significant between-group differences in outcome. Conclusions The age of transfused red cells did not affect 90-day mortality among critically ill adults. (Funded by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council and others; TRANSFUSE Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number, ACTRN12612000453886 ; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01638416 .).
Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in critically ill trauma patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis
French CJ, Glassford NJ, Gantner D, Higgins AM, Cooper DJ, Nichol A, Skrifvars MB, Imberger G, Presneill J, Bailey M, et al
Annals of Surgery. 2016;265((1):):54-62
OBJECTIVE To perform a meta-analysis of all relevant randomized controlled trials assessing the effect of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) in critically ill trauma patients. BACKGROUND ESAs have effects beyond erythropoiesis. The administration of the ESA epoetin alfa to critically ill trauma patients has been associated with a reduction in mortality. METHODS We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis. We searched Medline, Medline in Process, and other nonindexed citations, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database from inception until September 9, 2015, for randomized controlled trials comparing ESAs to placebo (or no ESA). RESULTS We identified 9 eligible studies that randomly assigned 2607 critically ill patients after trauma to an ESA or placebo (or no ESA). Compared with placebo (or no ESA), ESA therapy was associated with a substantial reduction in mortality [risk ratio (RR) 0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49-0.79, P = 0.0001, I = 0%). In patients with traumatic brain injury, ESA therapy did not increase the number of patients surviving with moderate disability or good recovery (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.88-1.15, P = 0.95, I = 0%). With the dosing regimens employed in the included studies, ESA therapy did not increase the risk of lower limb proximal deep venous thrombosis (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.72-1.29, P = 0.78, I = 0%). CONCLUSIONS The administration of ESAs to critically ill trauma patients is associated with a significant improvement in mortality without an increase in the rate of lower limb proximal deep venous thrombosis. Given the worldwide public health significance of these findings research to validate or refute them is required.
Erythropoietin in traumatic brain injury (EPO-TBI): a double-blind randomised controlled trial
Nichol A, French C, Little L, Haddad S, Presneill J, Arabi Y, Bailey M, Cooper DJ, Duranteau J, Huet O, et al
BACKGROUND Erythropoietin might have neurocytoprotective effects. In this trial, we studied its effect on neurological recovery, mortality, and venous thrombotic events in patients with traumatic brain injury. METHODS Erythropoietin in Traumatic Brain Injury (EPO-TBI) was a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial undertaken in 29 centres (all university-affiliated teaching hospitals) in seven countries (Australia, New Zealand, France, Germany, Finland, Ireland, and Saudi Arabia). Within 24 h of brain injury, 606 patients were randomly assigned by a concealed web-based computer-generated randomisation schedule to erythropoietin (40,000 units subcutaneously) or placebo (09% sodium chloride subcutaneously) once per week for a maximum of three doses. Randomisation was stratified by severity of traumatic brain injury (moderate vs severe) and participating site. With the exception of designated site pharmacists, the site dosing nurses at all sites, and the pharmacists at the central pharmacy in France, all study personnel, patients, and patients' relatives were masked to treatment assignment. The primary outcome, assessed at 6 months by modified intention-to-treat analysis, was improvement in the patients' neurological status, summarised as a reduction in the proportion of patients with an Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS-E) of 1-4 (death, vegetative state, and severe disability). Two equally spaced preplanned interim analyses were done (after 202 and 404 participants were enrolled). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00987454. FINDINGS Between May 3, 2010, and Nov 1, 2014, 606 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to erythropoietin (n=308) or placebo (n=298). Ten of these patients (six in the erythropoietin group and four in the placebo group) were lost to follow up at 6 months; therefore, data for the primary outcome analysis was available for 596 patients (302 in the erythropoietin group and 294 in the placebo group). Compared with placebo, erythropoietin did not reduce the proportion of patients with a GOS-E level of 1-4 (134 [44%] of 302 patients in the erythropoietin group vs 132 [45%] of 294 in the placebo group; relative risk [RR] 099 [95% CI 083-118], p=090). In terms of safety, erythropoietin did not significantly affect 6-month mortality versus placebo (32 [11%] of 305 patients had died at 6 months in the erythropoietin group vs 46 [16%] of 297 [16%] in the placebo group; RR 068 [95% CI 044-103], p=007) or increase the occurrence of deep venous thrombosis of the lower limbs (48 [16%] of 305 vs 54 [18%] of 298; RR 087 [95% CI 061-124], p=044). INTERPRETATION Following moderate or severe traumatic brain injury, erythropoietin did not reduce the number of patients with severe neurological dysfunction (GOS-E level 1-4) or increase the incidence of deep venous thrombosis of the lower limbs. The effect of erythropoietin on mortality remains uncertain. FUNDING The National Health and Medical Research Council and the Transport Accident Commission.Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A randomised controlled trial of standard transfusion versus fresher red blood cell use in intensive care (TRANSFUSE): protocol and statistical analysis plan
Kaukonen KM, Bailey M, Ady B, Aubron C, French C, Gantner D, Irving D, Murray L, Nichol A, Pettila V, et al
Critical Care & Resuscitation. 2014;16((4):):255-61.
OBJECTIVE To determine if using freshest available rather than standard-issue red blood cells (RBCs) can reduce mortality in critically ill intensive care unit patients. Our study is the largest ongoing randomised controlled trial (RCT) of RBC age in critically ill patients and will help determine if the use of the freshest available RBCs should become standard policy for the critically ill. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS A double-blind, multicentre, Phase III RCT of 5000 adult ICU patients in Australia, New Zealand, Europe and the Middle East. INTERVENTIONS Transfusion of the freshest available RBCs in place of standard-care RBCs until hospital discharge. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The primary outcome measure is 90-day all-cause mortality. Secondary outcome measures are time to death, 28-day and 180-day mortality, persistent organ dysfunction combined with death, days alive and free of mechanical ventilation and renal replacement therapy, bloodstream infection in the ICU, length of stay in the ICU and in hospital, proportion of patients with febrile non-haemolytic transfusion reactions, and quality of life at Day 180. RESULTS A detailed statistical analysis plan with predefined subgroups and secondary analyses has been finalised before results being available, to ensure an unbiased final analysis. CONCLUSIONS The pragmatic protocol design has been chosen to facilitate translation of the trial results into practice. The TRANSFUSE trial will have important clinical and policy implications, regardless of the outcome. IS 1441-2772
A pilot feasibility trial of allocation of freshest available red blood cells versus standard care in critically ill patients
Aubron C, Syres G, Nichol A, Bailey M, Board J, Magrin G, Murray L, Presneill J, Sutton J, Vallance S, et al
BACKGROUND Prolonged storage of red blood cells (RBCs) may increase posttransfusion adverse events in critically ill patients. We aimed to evaluate in intensive care unit (ICU) patients 1) the feasibility of allocating freshest available compatible RBCs versus standard care and 2) the suitability of this approach in the design of a large randomized controlled trial (RCT). STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Eligible patients from two adult ICUs were randomly assigned to receive either the freshest available compatible RBCs or the standard care (the oldest compatible available RBCs) for all transfusions during their ICU stay. Study group allocation was concealed from patients and bedside clinicians, but the transfusion service was unblinded. The study endpoints were the feasibility of the study procedures, including success of the ICU Web randomization, the ICU staff blinding, and the correct delivery of the RBC units by the transfusion service in accordance with the allocated study group. In addition, we measured the difference in age of RBC units between the two groups. RESULTS During a 3-month period, 177 RBC units were delivered to 51 patients. All study procedures, including randomization, blinding, and delivery of blood in accordance with the study group were successful. The mean (+/-SD) of the mean age of the RBC received by each patient was lower in the "fresher blood" group compared with the standard care group (12.1 [+/-3.8] days vs. 23 [+/-8.4] days; p<0.001). CONCLUSION Randomized delivery of the freshest available RBCs versus standard care to ICU patients who were prescribed transfusion for clinical reasons is feasible, with a clinically relevant degree of storage duration separation achievable between the two study groups. These findings support the feasibility of a future large pragmatic RCT. 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.
Protocol based on thromboelastograph (TEG) out-performs physician preference using laboratory coagulation tests to guide blood replacement during and after cardiac surgery: a pilot study
Westbrook AJ, Olsen J, Bailey M, Bates J, Scully M, Salamonsen RF
Heart, Lung & Circulation. 2009;18((4):):277-88.
BACKGROUND Allogenic blood transfusion may affect clinical outcomes negatively. Up to 20% of blood transfusions in the United States are associated with cardiac surgery and so strategies to conserve usage are of importance. This study compares administration according to physician's choice based on laboratory coagulation tests with application of a strict protocol based on the thromboelastograph (TEG). METHODS Sixty-nine patients presenting for cardiac surgery were randomised to either study or control groups. In the study group a strict protocol was followed covering usage of all blood products according to TEG patterns. In the control group, the physician directed product administration with reference to activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), international normalised ratio (INR), fibrinogen and platelet count. Bleeding, re-sternotomy, minimum haemoglobin, intubation time, and ICU stay were documented. RESULTS TEG-based management reduced total product usage by 58. 8% in the study group but this was not statistically significant. This was associated with a statistically insignificant trend towards better short-term outcomes. CONCLUSIONS This pilot study suggests that a strict protocol for blood product replacement based on the TEG might be highly effective in reducing usage without impairing short-term outcome.