Effect of blood transfusions on cognitive development in very low birth weight infants
Journal of perinatology : official journal of the California Perinatal Association. 2021
OBJECTIVE Preterm infants frequently receive red cell transfusions; however, the effect of transfusions on cognition is unclear. We evaluated the relationship between transfusions and cognitive outcomes in preterm infants enrolled in a randomized trial of erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs). STUDY DESIGN Preterm infants were randomized to ESAs or placebo during initial hospitalization, and transfusions recorded. Children were evaluated using standard developmental tests of cognition at 18-22 months (56 ESA, 24 placebo) and 3.5-4 years (39 ESA, 14 placebo). RESULTS Cognitive scores at 18-22 months were inversely correlated with transfusion volume (p = 0.02). Among those receiving ≥1 transfusion, cognitive scores were significantly higher in the ESA-treated group (p = 0.003). At 3.5-4 years, transfusions were not correlated with cognitive scores. CONCLUSIONS In the placebo group, transfused children had lower cognitive scores than did non-transfused children at 18-22 months. In the ESA group, cognitive scores did not differ by transfusion status, suggesting ESAs might provide neuroprotection.
Systematic review of rituximab for autoimmune diseases: a potential alternative to intravenous immune globulin
BACKGROUND The anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab has immune-modulatory effects similar to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the efficacy and safety of rituximab in autoimmune diseases that are also treated with IVIG. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS The most common indications for immune modulation with IVIG, as identified from a 2012 regional audit in Canada, were chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), myasthenia gravis, multifocal motor neuropathy, Guillain-Barre syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Sjogren's syndrome, and pemphigus vulgaris. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library until July 2016 for studies evaluating rituximab in each of these conditions. The primary outcome in our meta-analysis was clinical response at 6 months as defined by disease-specific criteria in randomized trials. We also calculated pooled proportions of responders within disease types from observational studies. RESULTS Ninety-five rituximab studies were identified: 86 were observational studies in patients with ITP (n = 1746), SLE (n = 1047), pemphigus vulgaris (n = 564), Sjogren's syndrome (n = 138), myasthenia gravis (n = 66), and CIDP (n = 31) and nine were randomized controlled trials (n = 992) in patients with ITP, SLE, and Sjogren's syndrome that compared rituximab with placebo plus standard of care. Among randomized trials, response rates were higher with rituximab (relative risk, 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.83). The pooled proportion of rituximab responses ranged from 94% (95% CI, 88%-98%) for pemphigus vulgaris to 48% (95% CI, 30%-66%) for CIDP. Rituximab was generally well tolerated in observational studies although in the randomized trials, adverse events were more common in the rituximab group. CONCLUSION Rituximab is an immune-modulating agent with biologic activity across many autoimmune conditions. Our data support the use of comparative trials with broad eligibility criteria to evaluate rituximab as an alternative to IVIG in autoimmune diseases.
Rituximab as an alternative to intravenous immune globulin for autoimmune diseases
Canadian Society of Transfusion Medicine. 2017;:73.. 126.
Intravenous iron or placebo for anaemia in intensive care: the IRONMAN multicentre randomized blinded trial : a randomized trial of IV iron in critical illness
Intensive Care Medicine. 2016;42((11):):1715-1722
PURPOSE Both anaemia and allogenic red blood cell transfusion are common and potentially harmful in patients admitted to the intensive care unit. Whilst intravenous iron may decrease anaemia and RBC transfusion requirement, the safety and efficacy of administering iron intravenously to critically ill patients is uncertain. METHODS The multicentre, randomized, placebo-controlled, blinded Intravenous Iron or Placebo for Anaemia in Intensive Care (IRONMAN) study was designed to test the hypothesis that, in anaemic critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit, early administration of intravenous iron, compared with placebo, reduces allogeneic red blood cell transfusion during hospital stay and increases the haemoglobin level at the time of hospital discharge. RESULTS Of 140 patients enrolled, 70 were assigned to intravenous iron and 70 to placebo. The iron group received 97 red blood cell units versus 136 red blood cell units in the placebo group, yielding an incidence rate ratio of 0.71 [95 % confidence interval (0.43-1.18), P = 0.19]. Overall, median haemoglobin at hospital discharge was significantly higher in the intravenous iron group than in the placebo group [107 (interquartile ratio IQR 97-115) vs. 100 g/L (IQR 89-111), P = 0.02]. There was no significant difference between the groups in any safety outcome. CONCLUSIONS In patients admitted to the intensive care unit who were anaemic, intravenous iron, compared with placebo, did not result in a significant lowering of red blood cell transfusion requirement during hospital stay. Patients who received intravenous iron had a significantly higher haemoglobin concentration at hospital discharge. The trial was registered at http://www.anzctr.org.au as # ACTRN12612001249842.
The IRONMAN trial: a protocol for a multicentre randomised placebo-controlled trial of intravenous iron in intensive care unit patients with anaemia
Critical Care & Resuscitation. 2014;16((4):):285-90.
BACKGROUND Allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is associated with significant increases in mortality and major morbidity in patients admitted to the intensive care unit, and the blood supplies it requires are an increasingly scarce and costly resource. Despite high levels of compliance with recommended transfusion thresholds in the ICU, RBC transfusion remains common. Novel interventions to reduce the incidence of RBC transfusion are required. OBJECTIVE To describe the study protocol for a randomised controlled trial, the Intravenous Iron or Placebo for Anaemia in Intensive Care (IRONMAN) trial, comparing intravenous (IV) iron with placebo in patients who are admitted to an ICU and are anaemic. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTION A Phase IIb multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Patients admitted to the ICU with a haemoglobin (Hb) level < 100 g/L and predicted to require critical care beyond the next calendar day will be randomly assigned in a 1 : 1 ratio to receive IV ferric carboxymaltose (500 mg) or placebo. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The primary end point will be the mean number of RBC units transfused from study enrolment to discharge from hospital. Secondary end points will include change in Hb level and incidence of nosocomial infection. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS The IRONMAN trial is designed to determine whether IV iron administered to patients admitted to an ICU and who are anaemic is associated with a reduction in RBC transfusion, compared with placebo in addition to standard care. The results of this trial may determine whether a Phase III trial of IV iron in ICUs is feasible. TRIAL REGISTRATION Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12612001249842). IS 1441-2772