The WOMAN trial: clinical and contextual factors surrounding the deaths of 483 women following post-partum haemorrhage in developing countries
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2020;20(1):409
BACKGROUND Post-partum haemorrhage (PPH) is a leading cause of maternal death worldwide. The WOMAN trial assessed the effects of tranexamic acid (TXA) on death and surgical morbidity in women with PPH. The trial recorded 483 maternal deaths. We report the circumstances of the women who died. METHODS The WOMAN trial recruited 20,060 women with a clinical diagnosis of PPH after a vaginal birth or caesarean section. We randomly allocated women to receive TXA or placebo. When a woman died, we asked participating clinicians to report the cause of death and to provide a short narrative of the events surrounding the death. We collated and edited for clarity the narrative data. RESULTS Case fatality rates were 3.0% in Africa and 1.7% in Asia. Nearly three quarters of deaths were within 3 h of delivery and 91% of these deaths were from bleeding. Women who delivered outside a participating hospital (12%) were three times more likely to die (OR = 3.12, 95%CI 2.55-3.81) than those who delivered in hospital. Blood was often unavailable due to shortages or because relatives could not afford to buy it. Clinicians highlighted late presentation, maternal anaemia and poor infrastructure as key contributory factors. CONCLUSIONS Although TXA use reduces bleeding deaths by almost one third, mortality rates similar to those in high income countries will not be achieved without tackling late presentation, maternal anaemia, availability of blood for transfusion and poor infrastructure.
Effect of tranexamic acid on coagulation and fibrinolysis in women with postpartum haemorrhage (WOMAN-ETAC): a single-centre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Women with postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) in 193 centres in 21 countries enrolled in the international WOMAN trial (n= 20,060).
Intravenous injection of 1 g of tranexamic acid (n= 10,051).
Matching placebo (n= 10,009).
There were 483 maternal deaths in developing countries. Case fatality rates were 3.0% in Africa and 1.7% in Asia. Nearly three quarters of deaths were within 3 hours of delivery and 91% of these deaths were from bleeding. Women who delivered outside a participating hospital (12%) were three times more likely to die than those who delivered in hospital. Key contributory factors highlighted by clinicians were: late presentation, maternal anaemia and poor infrastructure.
Wellcome Open Research. 2018;3:100.
Background: Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a leading cause of maternal death. The WOMAN trial showed that tranexamic acid (TXA) reduces death due to bleeding in women with PPH. We evaluated the effect of TXA on fibrinolysis and coagulation in a sample of WOMAN trial participants. Methods: Adult women with a clinical diagnosis of PPH were randomised to receive 1 g TXA or matching placebo in the WOMAN trial. Participants in the WOMAN trial at University College Hospital (Ibadan, Nigeria) also had venous blood taken just before administration of the first dose of trial treatment and again 30 (+/-15) min after the first dose (the ETAC study). We aimed to determine the effects of TXA on fibrinolysis (D-dimer and rotational thromboelastometry maximum clot lysis (ML)) and coagulation (international normalized ratio and clot amplitude at 5 min). We compared outcomes in women receiving TXA and placebo using linear regression, adjusting for baseline measurements. Results: Women (n=167) were randomised to receive TXA (n=83) or matching placebo (n=84). Due to missing data, seven women were excluded from analysis. The mean (SD) D-dimer concentration was 7.1 (7.0) mg/l in TXA-treated women and 9.6 (8.6) mg/l in placebo-treated women (p=0.09). After adjusting for baseline, the D-dimer concentration was 2.16 mg/l lower in TXA-treated women (-2.16, 95% CI -4.31 to 0.00, p=0.05). There was no significant difference in ML between TXA- and placebo-treated women (12.3% (18.4) and 10.7% (12.6), respectively; p=0.52) and no significant difference after adjusting for baseline ML (1.02, 95% CI -3.72 to 5.77, p=0.67). There were no significant effects of TXA on any other parameters. Conclusion: TXA treatment was associated with reduced D-dimer levels but had no apparent effects on thromboelastometry parameters or coagulation tests. Registration: ISRCTN76912190 (initially registered 10/12/2008, WOMAN-ETAC included on 22/03/2012) and NCT00872469 (initially registered 31/03/2009, WOMAN-ETAC included on 22/03/2012).
The CRASH-2 trial: a randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation of the effects of tranexamic acid on death, vascular occlusive events and transfusion requirement in bleeding trauma patients
Health Technology Assessment (Winchester, England). 2013;17((10):):1-79.
BACKGROUND Among trauma patients who survive to reach hospital, exsanguination is a common cause of death. A widely practicable treatment that reduces blood loss after trauma could prevent thousands of premature deaths each year. The CRASH-2 trial aimed to determine the effect of the early administration of tranexamic acid on death and transfusion requirement in bleeding trauma patients. In addition, the effort of tranexamic acid on the risk of vascular occlusive events was assessed. OBJECTIVE Tranexamic acid (TXA) reduces bleeding in patients undergoing elective surgery. We assessed the effects and cost-effectiveness of the early administration of a short course of TXA on death, vascular occlusive events and the receipt of blood transfusion in trauma patients. DESIGN Randomised placebo-controlled trial and economic evaluation. Randomisation was balanced by centre, with an allocation sequence based on a block size of eight, generated with a computer random number generator. Both participants and study staff (site investigators and trial co-ordinating centre staff) were masked to treatment allocation. All analyses were by intention to treat. A Markov model was used to assess cost-effectiveness. The health outcome was the number of life-years (LYs) gained. Cost data were obtained from hospitals, the World Health Organization database and UK reference costs. Cost-effectiveness was measured in international dollars ($) per LY. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to test the robustness of the results to model assumptions. SETTING Two hundred and seventy-four hospitals in 40 countries. PARTICIPANTS Adult trauma patients (n = 20,211) with, or at risk of, significant bleeding who were within 8 hours of injury. INTERVENTIONS Tranexamic acid (loading dose 1 g over 10 minutes then infusion of 1 g over 8 hours) or matching placebo. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The primary outcome was death in hospital within 4 weeks of injury, and was described with the following categories: bleeding, vascular occlusion (myocardial infarction, stroke and pulmonary embolism), multiorgan failure, head injury and other. RESULTS Patients were allocated to TXA (n = 10,096) and to placebo (n = 10,115), of whom 10,060 and 10,067 patients, respectively, were analysed. All-cause mortality at 28 days was significantly reduced by TXA [1463 patients (14.5%) in the TXA group vs 1613 patients (16.0%) in the placebo group; relative risk (RR) 0.91; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.85 to 0.97; p = 0.0035]. The risk of death due to bleeding was significantly reduced [489 patients (4.9%) died in the TXA group vs 574 patients (5.7%) in the placebo group; RR 0.85; 95% CI 0.76 to 0.96; p = 0.0077]. We recorded strong evidence that the effect of TXA on death due to bleeding varied according to the time from injury to treatment (test for interaction p < 0.0001). Early treatment (<= 1 hour from injury) significantly reduced the risk of death due to bleeding [198 out of 3747 patients (5.3%) died in the TXA group vs 286 out of 3704 patients (7.7%) in the placebo group; RR 0.68; 95% CI 0.57 to 0.82; p < 0.0001]. Treatment given between 1 and 3 hours also reduced the risk of death due to bleeding [147 out of 3037 patients (4.8%) died in the TXA group vs 184 out of 2996 patients (6.1%) in the placebo group; RR 0.79; 95% CI 0.64 to 0.97; p = 0.03]. Treatment given after 3 hours seemed to increase the risk of death due to bleeding [144 out of 3272 patients (4.4%) died in the TXA group vs 103 out of 3362 patients (3.1%) in the placebo group; RR 1.44; 95% CI1.12 to 1.84; p = 0.004]. We recorded no evidence that the effect of TXA on death due to bleeding varied by systolic blood pressure, Glasgow Coma Scale score or type of injury. Administering TXA to bleeding trauma patients within 3 hours of injury saved an estimated 755 LYs per 1000 trauma patients in the UK. The cost of giving TXA to 1000 patients was estimated at $30,830. The incremental cost of giving TXA compared with not giving TXA was $48,002. The incremental cost per LY gained of administ