Transfusion of standard-issue packed red blood cells induces pulmonary vasoconstriction in critically ill patients after cardiac surgery-A randomized, double-blinded, clinical trial
PloS one. 2019;14(3):e0213000
BACKGROUND Experimental and volunteer studies have reported pulmonary vasoconstriction during transfusion of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) stored for prolonged periods. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate whether transfusion of PRBCs stored over 21 days (standard-issue, siPRBCs) increases pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) to a greater extent than transfusion of PRBCs stored for less then 14 days (fresh, fPRBCs) in critically ill patients following cardiac surgery. The key secondary aim was to assess whether the pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) increases after transfusion of siPRBCs to a greater extent than after transfusion of fPRBCs. METHODS The study was performed as a single-center, double-blinded, parallel-group, randomized clinical trial. Leukoreduced PRBCs were transfused while continuously measuring hemodynamic parameters. Systemic concentrations of syndecan-1 were measured to assess glycocalyx injury. After randomizing 19 patients between January 2014 and June 2016, the study was stopped due to protracted patient recruitment. RESULTS Of 19 randomized patients, 11 patients were transfused and included in statistical analyses. Eight patients were excluded prior to transfusion, 6 patients received fPRBCs (10+/-3 storage days), whereas 5 patients received siPRBCs (33+/-4 storage days). The increase in PAP (7+/-3 vs. 2+/-2 mmHg, P = 0.012) was greater during transfusion of siPRBCs than during transfusion of fPRBCs. In addition, the change in PVRI (150+/-89 vs. -4+/-37 dyn.s.cm-5.m2, P = 0.018) was greater after transfusion of siPRBCs than after transfusion of fPRBCs. The increase in PAP correlated with the change of systemic syndecan-1 concentrations at the end of transfusion (R = 0.64,P = 0.034). CONCLUSION Although this study is underpowered and results require verification in larger clinical trials, our findings suggest that transfusion of siPRBCs increases PAP and PVRI to a greater extent than transfusion of fPRBCs in critically ill patients following cardiac surgery. Glycocalyx injury might contribute to pulmonary vasoconstriction associated with transfusion of stored blood.
Perioperative treatment algorithm for bleeding burn patients reduces allogeneic blood product requirements
British Journal of Anaesthesia. 2012;109((3):):376-81.
BACKGROUND Surgical excision of burn wounds is often associated with severe bleeding. Timely and targeted correction of coagulopathy reduces transfusion requirements and improves survival in trauma victims. We hypothesized that rapid correction of coagulopathy after a treatment algorithm based on point-of-care viscoelastic coagulation testing would decrease allogeneic blood product transfusions during surgical excision of burn wounds. METHODS Thirty consecutive patients undergoing surgical excision of burn wounds were enrolled into this prospective, randomized, controlled, single-centre study. In the control group, coagulation management was performed according to the clinicians' discretion. For the algorithm group, we standardized treatment based on the Austrian recommendation for the management of trauma-induced coagulopathy using point-of-care rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM). The main outcome parameter was the cumulative number of allogeneic blood units transfused on the day of surgery. RESULTS The difference between the groups regarding the cumulative use of allogeneic blood products was highly significant with 3.0 (1.3-5.5) blood products in the algorithm group compared with 9.0 (6.0-12.3) in the control group [median (inter-quartile range); P=0.002]. No plasma was administered in the algorithm group compared with 5.0 (1.5-7.5) units overall in the control group (P<0.001). Fibrinogen concentrate administration was not significantly different between the groups (P=0.89). Tranexamic acid was not administered. CONCLUSIONS The significant reduction in allogeneic blood product requirements during surgical burn wound excision is a prospective proof of concept that a bleeding management algorithm based on thromboelastometry is efficacious. Hypofibrinogenaemia and hyperfibrinolysis are not significant pathomechanisms of bleeding in this setting and ROTEM helps to avoid unnecessary interventions.