Effect of Tranexamic Acid Administration on Remote Cerebral Ischemic Lesions in Acute Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Substudy of a Randomized Clinical Trial
JAMA neurology. 2022
IMPORTANCE Hyperintense foci on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) that are spatially remote from the acute hematoma occur in 20% of people with acute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Tranexamic acid, a hemostatic agent that is under investigation for treating acute ICH, might increase DWI hyperintense lesions (DWIHLs). OBJECTIVE To establish whether tranexamic acid compared with placebo increased the prevalence or number of remote cerebral DWIHLs within 2 weeks of ICH onset. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This prospective nested magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) substudy of a randomized clinical trial (RCT) recruited participants from the multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 RCT (Tranexamic Acid for Hyperacute Primary Intracerebral Hemorrhage [TICH-2]) from July 1, 2015, to September 30, 2017, and conducted follow-up to 90 days after participants were randomized to either the tranexamic acid or placebo group. Participants had acute spontaneous ICH and included TICH-2 participants who provided consent to undergo additional MRI scans for the MRI substudy and those who had clinical MRI data that were compatible with the brain MRI protocol of the substudy. Data analyses were performed on an intention-to-treat basis on January 20, 2020. INTERVENTIONS The tranexamic acid group received 1 g in 100-mL intravenous bolus loading dose, followed by 1 g in 250-mL infusion within 8 hours of ICH onset. The placebo group received 0.9% saline within 8 hours of ICH onset. Brain MRI scans, including DWI, were performed within 2 weeks. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Prevalence and number of remote DWIHLs were compared between the treatment groups using binary logistic regression adjusted for baseline covariates. RESULTS A total of 219 participants (mean [SD] age, 65.1 [13.8] years; 126 men [57.5%]) who had brain MRI data were included. Of these participants, 96 (43.8%) were randomized to receive tranexamic acid and 123 (56.2%) were randomized to receive placebo. No baseline differences in demographic characteristics and clinical or imaging features were found between the groups. There was no increase for the tranexamic acid group compared with the placebo group in DWIHL prevalence (20 of 96 [20.8%] vs 28 of 123 [22.8%]; odds ratio [OR], 0.71; 95% CI, 0.33-1.53; P = .39) or mean (SD) number of DWIHLs (1.75 [1.45] vs 1.81 [1.71]; mean difference [MD], -0.08; 95% CI, -0.36 to 0.20; P = .59). In an exploratory analysis, participants who were randomized within 3 hours of ICH onset or those with chronic infarcts appeared less likely to have DWIHLs if they received tranexamic acid. Participants with probable cerebral amyloid angiopathy appeared more likely to have DWIHLs if they received tranexamic acid. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This substudy of an RCT found no evidence of increased prevalence or number of remote DWIHLs after tranexamic acid treatment in acute ICH. These findings provide reassurance for ongoing and future trials that tranexamic acid for acute ICH is unlikely to induce cerebral ischemic events. TRIAL REGISTRATION isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN93732214.
Early lowering of blood pressure after acute intracerebral haemorrhage: a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data
Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry. 2021
OBJECTIVE To summarise evidence of the effects of blood pressure (BP)-lowering interventions after acute spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). METHODS A prespecified systematic review of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE and MEDLINE databases from inception to 23 June 2020 to identify randomised controlled trials that compared active BP-lowering agents versus placebo or intensive versus guideline BP-lowering targets for adults <7 days after ICH onset. The primary outcome was function (distribution of scores on the modified Rankin scale) 90 days after randomisation. Radiological outcomes were absolute (>6 mL) and proportional (>33%) haematoma growth at 24 hours. Meta-analysis used a one-stage approach, adjusted using generalised linear mixed models with prespecified covariables and trial as a random effect. RESULTS Of 7094 studies identified, 50 trials involving 11 494 patients were eligible and 16 (32.0%) shared patient-level data from 6221 (54.1%) patients (mean age 64.2 [SD 12.9], 2266 [36.4%] females) with a median time from symptom onset to randomisation of 3.8 hours (IQR 2.6-5.3). Active/intensive BP-lowering interventions had no effect on the primary outcome compared with placebo/guideline treatment (adjusted OR for unfavourable shift in modified Rankin scale scores: 0.97, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.06; p=0.50), but there was significant heterogeneity by strategy (p(interaction)=0.031) and agent (p(interaction)<0.0001). Active/intensive BP-lowering interventions clearly reduced absolute (>6 ml, adjusted OR 0.75, 95%CI 0.60 to 0.92; p=0.0077) and relative (≥33%, adjusted OR 0.82, 95%CI 0.68 to 0.99; p=0.034) haematoma growth. INTERPRETATION Overall, a broad range of interventions to lower BP within 7 days of ICH onset had no overall benefit on functional recovery, despite reducing bleeding. The treatment effect appeared to vary according to strategy and agent. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER CRD42019141136.
Tranexamic Acid for Prevention of Hematoma Expansion in Intracerebral Hemorrhage Patients With or Without Spot Sign
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The computed tomography angiography or contrast-enhanced computed tomography based spot sign has been proposed as a biomarker for identifying on-going hematoma expansion in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage. We investigated, if spot-sign positive participants benefit more from tranexamic acid versus placebo as compared to spot-sign negative participants. METHODS TICH-2 trial (Tranexamic Acid for Hyperacute Primary Intracerebral Haemorrhage) was a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial recruiting acutely hospitalized participants with intracerebral hemorrhage within 8 hours after symptom onset. Local investigators randomized participants to 2 grams of intravenous tranexamic acid or matching placebo (1:1). All participants underwent computed tomography scan on admission and on day 2 (24±12 hours) after randomization. In this sub group analysis, we included all participants from the main trial population with imaging allowing adjudication of spot sign status. RESULTS Of the 2325 TICH-2 participants, 254 (10.9%) had imaging allowing for spot-sign adjudication. Of these participants, 64 (25.2%) were spot-sign positive. Median (interquartile range) time from symptom onset to administration of the intervention was 225.0 (169.0 to 310.0) minutes. The adjusted percent difference in absolute day-2 hematoma volume between participants allocated to tranexamic versus placebo was 3.7% (95% CI, -12.8% to 23.4%) for spot-sign positive and 1.7% (95% CI, -8.4% to 12.8%) for spot-sign negative participants (P(heterogenity)=0.85). No difference was observed in significant hematoma progression (dichotomous composite outcome) between participants allocated to tranexamic versus placebo among spot-sign positive (odds ratio, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.29 to 2.46]) and negative (odds ratio, 0.77 [95% CI, 0.41 to 1.45]) participants (P(heterogenity)=0.88). CONCLUSIONS Data from the TICH-2 trial do not support that admission spot sign status modifies the treatment effect of tranexamic acid versus placebo in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage. The results might have been affected by low statistical power as well as treatment delay. REGISTRATION URL: http://www.controlled-trials.com; Unique identifier: ISRCTN93732214.
Predictors and Outcomes of Neurological Deterioration in Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Results from the TICH-2 Randomized Controlled Trial
Translational stroke research. 2020
Neurological deterioration is common after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We aimed to identify the predictors and effects of neurological deterioration and whether tranexamic acid reduced the risk of neurological deterioration. Data from the Tranexamic acid in IntraCerebral Hemorrhage-2 (TICH-2) randomized controlled trial were analyzed. Neurological deterioration was defined as an increase in National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) of ≥ 4 or a decline in Glasgow Coma Scale of ≥ 2. Neurological deterioration was considered to be early if it started ≤ 48 h and late if commenced between 48 h and 7 days after onset. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors and effects of neurological deterioration and the effect of tranexamic acid on neurological deterioration. Of 2325 patients, 735 (31.7%) had neurological deterioration: 590 (80.3%) occurred early and 145 (19.7%) late. Predictors of early neurological deterioration included recruitment from the UK, previous ICH, higher admission systolic blood pressure, higher NIHSS, shorter onset-to-CT time, larger baseline hematoma, intraventricular hemorrhage, subarachnoid extension and antiplatelet therapy. Older age, male sex, higher NIHSS, previous ICH and larger baseline hematoma predicted late neurological deterioration. Neurological deterioration was independently associated with a modified Rankin Scale of > 3 (aOR 4.98, 3.70-6.70; p < 0.001). Tranexamic acid reduced the risk of early (aOR 0.79, 0.63-0.99; p = 0.041) but not late neurological deterioration (aOR 0.76, 0.52-1.11; p = 0.15). Larger hematoma size, intraventricular and subarachnoid extension increased the risk of neurological deterioration. Neurological deterioration increased the risk of death and dependency at day 90. Tranexamic acid reduced the risk of early neurological deterioration and warrants further investigation in ICH. URL: https://www.isrctn.com Unique identifier: ISRCTN93732214.
Incidence and predictors of early seizures in intracerebral haemorrhage and the effect of tranexamic acid
Eur Stroke J. 2020;5(2):123-129
Introduction: Seizures are common after intracerebral haemorrhage. Tranexamic acid increases the risk of seizures in non-intracerebral haemorrhage population but its effect on post-intracerebral haemorrhage seizures is unknown. We explored the risk factors and outcomes of seizures after intracerebral haemorrhage and if tranexamic acid increased the risk of seizures in the Tranexamic acid for IntraCerebral Haemorrhage-2 trial. Patients and methods: Seizures were reported prospectively up to day 90. Cox regression analyses were used to determine the predictors of seizures within 90 days and early seizures (≤7 days). We explored the effect of early seizures on day 90 outcomes. Results: Of 2325 patients recruited, 193 (8.3%) had seizures including 163 (84.5%) early seizures and 30 (15.5%) late seizures (>7 days). Younger age (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 0.98 per year increase, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97-0.99; p = 0.008), lobar haematoma (aHR 5.84, 95%CI 3.58-9.52; p < 0.001), higher National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (aHR 1.03, 95%CI 1.01-1.06; p = 0.014) and previous stroke (aHR 1.66, 95%CI 1.11-2.47; p = 0.013) were associated with early seizures. Tranexamic acid did not increase the risk of seizure within 90 days. Early seizures were associated with worse modified Rankin Scale (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.79, 95%CI 1.12-2.86, p = 0.015) and increased risk of death (aOR 3.26, 95%CI 1.98-5.39; p < 0.001) at day 90.Discussion and conclusion: Lobar haematoma was the strongest independent predictor of early seizures after intracerebral haemorrhage. Tranexamic acid did not increase the risk of post-intracerebral haemorrhage seizures in the first 90 days. Early seizures resulted in worse functional outcome and increased risk of death.
Intracranial Bleeding After Reperfusion Therapy in Acute Ischaemic Stroke Patients Randomized to Glyceryl Trinitrate vs. Control: An Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis
Frontiers in neurology. 2020;11:584038
Background: Thrombolysis, with or without thrombectomy, for acute ischaemic stroke is associated with an increased risk of intracranial bleeding. We assessed whether treatment with glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), a nitric oxide donor, may influence the associated bleeding risk. Methods: We searched for completed randomized controlled trials of GTN vs. no GTN in acute ischaemic stroke with data on reperfusion treatments (thrombolysis and/or thrombectomy). The primary efficacy outcome was functional status as assessed by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at day 90; the primary safety outcome was intracranial bleeding. Secondary safety outcomes included symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage and haemorrhagic transformation of infarction. Individual patient data were pooled and meta-analysis performed using ordinal or binary logistic regression with adjustment for trial and prognostic variables both overall and in those randomized within 6 h of symptom onset. Results: Three trials met the eligibility criteria. Of 715 patients with ischaemic stroke who underwent thrombolysis (709, >99%) or thrombectomy (24, 3.4%), 357 (49.9%) received GTN and 358 (50.1%) received no GTN. Overall, there was no difference in the distribution of the mRS at day 90 between GTN vs. no GTN (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.72-1.23; p = 0.65); similarly, there was no difference in intracranial hemorrhage rates between treatment groups (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.43-1.89; p = 0.77). In those randomized to GTN vs. no GTN within 6 h of symptom onset, there were numerically fewer bleeding events, but these analyses did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions: In ischaemic stroke patients treated predominantly with thrombolysis, transdermal GTN was safe, but did not influence functional outcome at 90 days.
Noncontrast Computed Tomography Signs as Predictors of Hematoma Expansion, Clinical Outcome, and Response to Tranexamic Acid in Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage
Background and Purpose- Blend, black hole, island signs, and hypodensities are reported to predict hematoma expansion in acute intracerebral hemorrhage. We explored the value of these noncontrast computed tomography signs in predicting hematoma expansion and functional outcome in our cohort of intracerebral hemorrhage. Methods- The TICH-2 (Tranexamic acid for IntraCerebral Hemorrhage-2) was a prospective randomized controlled trial exploring the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid in acute intracerebral hemorrhage. Baseline and 24-hour computed tomography scans of trial participants were analyzed. Hematoma expansion was defined as an increase in hematoma volume of >33% or >6 mL on 24-hour computed tomography. Poor functional outcome was defined as modified Rankin Scale of 4 to 6 at day 90. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify predictors of hematoma expansion and poor functional outcome. Results- Of 2325 patients recruited, 2077 (89.3%) had valid baseline and 24-hour scans. Five hundred seventy patients (27.4%) had hematoma expansion while 1259 patients (54.6%) had poor functional outcome. The prevalence of noncontrast computed tomography signs was blend sign, 366 (16.1%); black hole sign, 414 (18.2%); island sign, 200 (8.8%); and hypodensities, 701 (30.2%). Blend sign (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.53 [95% CI, 1.16-2.03]; P=0.003), black hole (aOR, 2.03 [1.34-3.08]; P=0.001), and hypodensities (aOR, 2.06 [1.48-2.89]; P<0.001) were independent predictors of hematoma expansion on multivariable analysis with adjustment for covariates. Black hole sign (aOR, 1.52 [1.10-2.11]; P=0.012), hypodensities (aOR, 1.37 [1.05-1.78]; P=0.019), and island sign (aOR, 2.59 [1.21-5.55]; P=0.014) were significant predictors of poor functional outcome. Tranexamic acid reduced the risk of hematoma expansion (aOR, 0.77 [0.63-0.94]; P=0.010), but there was no significant interaction between the presence of noncontrast computed tomography signs and benefit of tranexamic acid on hematoma expansion and functional outcome (P interaction all >0.05). Conclusions- Blend sign, black hole sign, and hypodensities predict hematoma expansion while black hole sign, hypodensities, and island signs predict poor functional outcome. Noncontrast computed tomography signs did not predict a better response to tranexamic acid. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: https://www.isrctn.com. Unique identifier: ISRCTN93732214.
Tranexamic acid to improve functional status in adults with spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage: the TICH-2 RCT
Health technology assessment (Winchester, England). 2019;23(35):1-48
BACKGROUND Tranexamic acid reduces death due to bleeding after trauma and postpartum haemorrhage. OBJECTIVE The aim of the study was to assess if tranexamic acid is safe, reduces haematoma expansion and improves outcomes in adults with spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). DESIGN The TICH-2 (Tranexamic acid for hyperacute primary IntraCerebral Haemorrhage) study was a pragmatic, Phase III, prospective, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial. SETTING Acute stroke services at 124 hospitals in 12 countries (Denmark, Georgia, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Malaysia, Poland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the UK). PARTICIPANTS Adult patients (aged ≥ 18 years) with ICH within 8 hours of onset. EXCLUSION CRITERIA Exclusion criteria were ICH secondary to anticoagulation, thrombolysis, trauma or a known underlying structural abnormality; patients for whom tranexamic acid was thought to be contraindicated; prestroke dependence (i.e. patients with a modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score > 4); life expectancy < 3 months; and a Glasgow Coma Scale score of < 5. INTERVENTIONS Participants, allocated by randomisation, received 1 g of an intravenous tranexamic acid bolus followed by an 8-hour 1-g infusion or matching placebo (i.e. 0.9% saline). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE The primary outcome was functional status (death or dependency) at day 90, which was measured by the shift in the mRS score, using ordinal logistic regression, with adjustment for stratification and minimisation criteria. RESULTS A total of 2325 participants (tranexamic acid, n = 1161; placebo, n = 1164) were recruited from 124 hospitals in 12 countries between 2013 and 2017. Treatment groups were well balanced at baseline. The primary outcome was determined for 2307 participants (tranexamic acid, n = 1152; placebo, n = 1155). There was no statistically significant difference between the treatment groups for the primary outcome of functional status at day 90 [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.76 to 1.03; p = 0.11]. Although there were fewer deaths by day 7 in the tranexamic acid group (aOR 0.73, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.99; p = 0.041), there was no difference in case fatality at 90 days (adjusted hazard ratio 0.92, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.10; p = 0.37). Fewer patients experienced serious adverse events (SAEs) after treatment with tranexamic acid than with placebo by days 2 (p = 0.027), 7 (p = 0.020) and 90 (p = 0.039). There was no increase in thromboembolic events or seizures. LIMITATIONS Despite attempts to enrol patients rapidly, the majority of participants were enrolled and treated > 4.5 hours after stroke onset. Pragmatic inclusion criteria led to a heterogeneous population of participants, some of whom had very large strokes. Although 12 countries enrolled participants, the majority (82.1%) were from the UK. CONCLUSIONS Tranexamic acid did not affect a patient's functional status at 90 days after ICH, despite there being significant modest reductions in early death (by 7 days), haematoma expansion and SAEs, which is consistent with an antifibrinolytic effect. Tranexamic acid was safe, with no increase in thromboembolic events. FUTURE WORK Future work should focus on enrolling and treating patients early after stroke and identify which participants are most likely to benefit from haemostatic therapy. Large randomised trials are needed. TRIAL REGISTRATION Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN93732214.
Hemostatic Therapies For Acute Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage
Tranexamic acid for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: a randomized controlled pilot trial (ISRCTN50867461)
Journal of Stroke & Cerebrovascular Diseases. 2014;23((6):):1312-8.
BACKGROUND Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) can be devastating, particularly if hematoma expansion (HE) occurs. Tranexamic acid (TA), an antifibrinolytic drug, significantly reduced mortality in bleeding patients after trauma in the large CRASH-2 trial. The CRASH-2 ICH substudy found that TA nonsignificantly reduced mortality and dependency in traumatic ICH. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of performing a randomized controlled trial of tranexamic acid in spontaneous ICH, ahead of a definitive study. METHODS We performed a single-center, prospective, randomized (2:1), double-blind, placebo-controlled blinded endpoint trial of TA (intravenous 1 g bolus, 1 g infusion/8 h) in acute (<24 hours) spontaneous ICH. The primary objective was to test the feasibility of recruiting to the trial. Other objectives included tolerability (adverse events) and the effect of TA on HE and death and dependency. RESULTS The trial was feasible, with 24 patients enrolled (TA, n = 16; placebo, n = 8) between March 2011 and March 2012, and acceptable-only 3 patients declined to participate. All patients received the correct randomized treatment; 1 patient in the TA group did not complete the infusion because of neurologic deterioration. There were no significant differences in secondary outcomes including adverse events, HE, death, and dependency. One patient in the TA group had a deep vein thrombosis . CONCLUSIONS This, the first randomized controlled trial of TA in ICH, found that the protocol could be delivered on schedule (2 patients/mo) and was feasible. Larger studies are needed to assess safety and efficacy of TA in ICH. Copyright 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.