Immunoglobulin prophylaxis in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: systematic review and meta-analysis
Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2009;27((5):):770-81.
PURPOSE Because the role of immunoglobulins (IVIG) prophylaxis in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) has not been established in terms of survival and infection prevention, we conducted a meta-analysis evaluating these issues. METHODS Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials comparing prophylaxis with polyvalent IVIG or cytomegalovirus (CMV)-IVIG and control or another preparation or dose. PUBMED, Cochrane Library, LILACS, and conference proceedings were searched. Two reviewers appraised the quality of trials and extracted data. Relative risks (RRs) with 95% CIs were estimated and pooled. RESULTS Thirty trials including 4,223 patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation (BMT) were included. There was no difference in all-cause mortality when polyvalent IVIG or CMV-IVIG was compared to control (RR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.88 to 1.12; and RR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.63 to 1.16, respectively). There was no difference in clinically documented infections when polyvalent IVIG was compared with control (RR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.90 to 1.10; five trials). CMV infections were not significantly reduced with either polyvalent IVIG or CMV-IVIG. Interstitial pneumonitis was reduced with polyvalent IVIG in older studies but not in the more recent ones, nor in studies assessing CMV-IVIG. Polyvalent IVIG increased the risk for veno-occlusive disease (RR, 2.73; (95% CI, 1.11 to 6.71). Graft-versus-host disease was not affected. CONCLUSION Because there is no advantage in terms of survival or infection prevention, IVIG does not have a role in HSCT.
Immunoglobulin prophylaxis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and multiple myeloma: systematic review and meta-analysis
Leukemia & Lymphoma. 2009;50((5):):764-72.
The role of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) prophylaxis in hypogammaglobulinemic patients with lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) and plasma cell dyscrasias (PCD) has not been established. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials comparing prophylaxis with polyvalent IVIG versus control. The primary outcomes were all-cause mortality and major infections. Nine trials, assessing patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and multiple myeloma (MM), were included. No survival benefit could be demonstrated, RR 1.36 (95% CI 0.58-3.19, two trials), but there was a significant decrease in the occurrence of major infections, RR 0.45 (95% CI 0.27-0.75, three trials) and a significant reduction in clinically documented infections, RR 0.49 (95% CI 0.39-0.61, three trials). Adverse events, usually not requiring discontinuation of IVIG, occurred significantly more with IVIG. On the basis of the available data, IVIG cannot be recommended routinely for patients with CLL or MM with hypogammaglobulinemia and/or recurrent infections and should be considered on individual basis.
A controlled trial of tranexamic acid therapy for the reduction of bleeding during treatment of acute myeloid leukemia
Leukemia & Lymphoma. 1995;19((1-2):):141-4.
In order to determine the efficacy of the antifibrinolytic agent tranexamic acid (TA) in reducing bleeding and platelet transfusions during the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), we conducted a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study. Patients with AML undergoing induction or postremission consolidation chemotherapy were randomized into TA or placebo groups. Patients were not given platelet transfusions prophylactically but only when bleeding occurred. The severity of any bleeding event was scored. Thirty eight patients were randomized during induction. There were no significant differences between the two groups in the number of bleeding events and their severity or in the number of platelet transfusions given. Eighteen patients were studied during consolidation. In contrast, to the induction period, during consolidation there was a significantly less severe bleeding tendency in the TA group resulting in a lower platelet transfusion requirement [3.7 +/- 4.1 vs. 9.3 +/- 3.3 platelet units (p < .05)]. TA was well tolerated and no side effects were seen and no specific thromboembolic events were noticed. We conclude that giving TA during the thrombocytopenic period of AML patients undergoing consolidation chemotherapy is beneficial and safely reduces platelet transfusions.