Heart Failure Hospitalization in Adults Receiving Hemodialysis and the Effect of Intravenous Iron Therapy
JACC. Heart failure. 2021
OBJECTIVES The study sought to examine the effect of intravenous iron on heart failure events in hemodialysis patients. BACKGROUND Heart failure is a common and deadly complication in patients receiving hemodialysis and is difficult to diagnose and treat. METHODS The study analyzed heart failure events in the PIVOTAL (Proactive IV Iron Therapy in Hemodialysis Patients) trial, which compared intravenous iron administered proactively in a high-dose regimen with a low-dose regimen administered reactively. Heart failure hospitalization was an adjudicated outcome, a component of the primary composite outcome, and a prespecified secondary endpoint in the trial. RESULTS Overall, 2,141 participants were followed for a median of 2.1 years. A first fatal or nonfatal heart failure event occurred in 51 (4.7%) of 1,093 patients in the high-dose iron group and in 70 (6.7%) of 1,048 patients in the low-dose group (HR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.46-0.94; P = 0.023). There was a total of 63 heart failure events (including first and recurrent events) in the high-dose iron group and 98 in the low-dose group, giving a rate ratio of 0.59 (95% CI: 0.40-0.87; P = 0.0084). Most patients presented with pulmonary edema and were mainly treated by mechanical removal of fluid. History of heart failure and diabetes were independent predictors of a heart failure event. CONCLUSION Compared with a lower-dose regimen, high-dose intravenous iron decreased the occurrence of first and recurrent heart failure events in patients undergoing hemodialysis, with large relative and absolute risk reductions. (UK Multicentre Open-label Randomised Controlled Trial Of IV Iron Therapy In Incident Haemodialysis Patients; 2013-002267-25).
Haemodialysis patients enrolled in the PIVOTAL trial (n= 2,141).
Intravenous iron administered proactively in a high-dose regimen (n= 1,093).
Low-dose regimen administered reactively (n= 1,048).
A first fatal or nonfatal heart failure event occurred in 51 (4.7%) of 1,093 patients in the high-dose iron group and in 70 (6.7%) of 1,048 patients in the low-dose group. There was a total of 63 heart failure events (including first and recurrent events) in the high-dose iron group and 98 in the low-dose group. Most patients presented with pulmonary oedema and were mainly treated by mechanical removal of fluid. History of heart failure and diabetes were independent predictors of a heart failure event.
A multicentre prospective double blinded randomised controlled trial of intravenous iron (ferric Derisomaltose (FDI)) in Iron deficient but not anaemic patients with chronic kidney disease on functional status
BMC nephrology. 2021;22(1):115
BACKGROUND Iron deficiency (ID) is common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Intravenous (IV) iron in heart failure leads to improvement in exercise capacity and improvement in quality-of-life measurements; however, data in patients with CKD are lacking. METHODS The Iron and the Heart Study was a prospective double blinded randomised study in non-anaemic CKD stages 3b-5 patients with ID which investigated whether 1000 mg of IV iron (ferric derisomaltose (FDI)) could improve exercise capacity in comparison to placebo measured at 1 and 3 months post infusion. Secondary objectives included effects on haematinic profiles and haemoglobin, safety analysis and quality of life questionnaires (QoL). RESULTS We randomly assigned 54 patients mean (SD) age for FDI (n = 26) 61.6 (10.1) years vs placebo (n = 28; 57.8 (12.9) years) and mean eGFR (33.2 (9.3) vs. 29.1 (9.6) ml/min/1.73m(2)) at baseline, respectively. Adjusting for baseline measurements, six-minute walk test (6MWT) showed no statistically significant difference between arms at 1 month (p = 0.736), or 3 months (p = 0.741). There were non-significant increases in 6MWT from baseline to 1 and 3 months in the FDI arm. Haemoglobin (Hb) at 1 and 3 months remained stable. There were statistically significant increases in ferritin (SF) and transferrin saturation (TSAT) at 1 and 3 months (p < 0.001). There was a modest numerical improvement in QoL parameters. There were no adverse events attributable to IV iron. CONCLUSION This study demonstrated a short-term beneficial effect of FDI on exercise capacity, but it was not significant despite improvements in parameters of iron status, maintenance of Hb concentration, and numerical increases in functional capacity and quality of life scores. A larger study will be required to confirm if intravenous iron is beneficial in iron deficient non-anaemic non-dialysis CKD patients without heart failure to improve the 6MWT. TRIAL REGISTRATION European Clinical Trials Database (EudraCT) No: 2014-004133-16 REC no: 14/YH/1209 Date First Registered: 2015-02-17 and date of end of trail 2015-05-23 Sponsor ref R1766 and Protocol No: IHI 141.
The comparative effects of intravenous iron on oxidative stress and inflammation in patients with chronic kidney disease and iron deficiency: a randomized controlled pilot study
Kidney research and clinical practice. 2021
BACKGROUND Concerns exist regarding the pro-oxidant and inflammatory potential of intravenous (IV) iron due to labile plasma iron (LPI) generation. This IRON-CKD trial compared the effects of different IV irons on oxidative stress and inflammation. METHODS In this randomized open-label explorative single-center study in the United Kingdom, non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with iron deficiency were randomized (1:1:1:1) to receive a single infusion of 200 mg iron dextran, or 200 mg iron sucrose (IS), or 200 mg or 1,000 mg ferric derisomaltose (FDI) and were followed up for 3 months. The primary outcomes measured were induction of oxidative stress and inflammation. Secondarily, efficacy, vascular function, quality of life, and safety were monitored. RESULTS Forty patients were enrolled. No significant rise in oxidative stress existed, regardless of preparation or dose. There was a significant rise in LPI with 1,000 mg FDI at 2 hours that normalized within a week, not impacting oxidative stress or inflammation. A delayed rise in C-reactive protein was noted with IS. High-dose FDI produced a sustained serum ferritin increase (mean ± standard error of the mean of predose: 69.1 ± 18.4 μg/L, 3 months: 271.0 ± 83.3 μg/L; p = 0.007). Hemoglobin remained stable throughout. No adverse drug reactions were recorded during the study. CONCLUSION A single dose of IV iron in CKD patients does not trigger oxidative stress or inflammation biomarkers. Third-generation IV irons have a reassuring safety profile, and high-dose FDI produced a sustained serum ferritin rise and more efficient iron repletion, with no significant pro-oxidant or inflammatory signals when compared to a lower dose and other IV irons.
Safety and Efficacy of Intravenous Ferric Derisomaltose Compared to Iron Sucrose for Iron Deficiency Anemia in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease With and Without Heart Failure
The American journal of cardiology. 2021
Ferric derisomaltose (FDI) is an intravenous (IV) high-dose iron formulation approved in the US for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in adults who are intolerant of/have had an unsatisfactory response to oral iron, or who have non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (NDD-CKD). FERWON-NEPHRO was a randomized, open-label, multicenter clinical trial evaluating the safety and efficacy of a single infusion of FDI 1,000 mg versus up to 5 doses of iron sucrose (IS) 200 mg (recommended cumulative dose, 1,000 mg) over 8 weeks in patients with NDD-CKD and iron deficiency anemia. Of 1,525 patients included in the safety analysis, 244 (16%) had a history of heart failure (HF). Overall, the rate of serious or severe hypersensitivity reactions was low and did not differ between treatment groups. Cardiovascular adverse events (AEs) were reported for 9.4% of patients who had HF and 4.2% who did not. Time to first cardiovascular AE was longer following administration of FDI compared with IS (hazard ratio: 0.59 [95% CI: 0.37, 0.92]; p=0.0185), a difference that was similar in patients with or without HF (p=0.908 for interaction). Patients achieved a faster hematological response (assessed by changes in hemoglobin and ferritin concentrations, and increase in transferrin saturation) with FDI versus IS. In conclusion, in patients with NDD-CKD, a single infusion of FDI was safe, well tolerated, and was associated with fewer cardiovascular AEs and a faster hematological response, compared to multiple doses of IS. These effects were similar for patients with and without HF.
Protocol and Baseline Data of a Multicentre Prospective Double-Blinded Randomized Study of Intravenous Iron on Functional Status in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease
Am J Nephrol. 2020;:1-8
BACKGROUND Iron deficiency (ID) is common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) due to an inadequate dietary intake of iron, poor absorption from the gut and increased iron losses. In addition to preventing anaemia, iron is important for normal heart function, being involved in processes that generate a necessary continuous energy supply. Treatment with intravenous (IV) iron has been suggested to lead to improvement in heart function and well-being in people with ID and CKD. In the Iron and the Heart Study, we hypothesized that IV iron treatment will primarily improve exercise capacity and may secondarily impact the feeling of well-being in comparison to placebo over 3 months in non-anaemic CKD patients who have ID. METHODS This was a prospective double-blinded explorative randomized, multi-centre study designed to compare the effects of IV iron supplementation and placebo in iron-deficient but not anaemic patients with established CKD stages 3b-5 on functional status, and in addition cardiac structure and function. The study included 54 adults with serum ferritin (SF) <100 microg/L and/or transferrin saturation <20%, randomized in a 1:1 ratio to 1,000 mg IV ferric derisomaltose or placebo. Following randomization, participants underwent baseline assessments and then received IV iron or placebo infusion. Each participant was followed up at months 1 and 3. At each visit, patients underwent clinical review, measurements of hematinics and haemoglobin (Hb), and assessments of physical function and well-being. The primary outcome was exercise capacity using the 6-minute walk test. Secondary objectives included effects on hematinic profiles and Hb concentration, changes in myocardial parameters assessed with speckle tracking echocardiography and change in patients' quality of life. RESULTS Between October 2016 and April 2018, 55 from 326 individuals from 3 UK centres attended screening and were randomized. The mean (SD) age was 59.6 (11.7) years, 26 (48%) patients were male, the majority were Caucasians (42; 78%), and 32 (59%) were non-smokers. The mean (SD) body mass index was 30.3 (6.5); SF was 66.3 (44.1) microg/L, TS was 20.1 (7.4) % and Hb was 128.7 (10.1) g/L at randomization for the whole group. Mean (SD) serum creatinine was 186.7 (58.6) micromol/L, estimated glomerular filtration rate was 31.1 (9.6) mL/min/1.73 m2 and urinary albumin and protein/creatinine ratios 60.9 (133.3) and 83.8 (128.4) mg/mmol respectively. The mean (SD) C-reactive protein was 5.0 (4.4) mg/L and the mean (SD) 6-minute walk distance at baseline was 401.2 (120.2) m. CONCLUSION The Iron and the Heart Trial will provide important information on the short-term effects of IV iron treatment in CKD patients with ID without anaemia on measures of exercise capacity, quality of life and mechanistic data on myocardial structure and function. TRIAL REGISTRATION European Clinical Trials Database (No. 2014-004133-6; REC no. 14/YH/1209; Sponsor ref. R1766).
Intravenous Iron Dosing and Infection Risk in Patients on Hemodialysis: A Prespecified Secondary Analysis of the PIVOTAL Trial
J Am Soc Nephrol. 2020
BACKGROUND Experimental and observational studies have raised concerns that giving intravenous (IV) iron to patients, such as individuals receiving maintenance hemodialysis, might increase the risk of infections. The Proactive IV Iron Therapy in Haemodialysis Patients (PIVOTAL) trial randomized 2141 patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis for ESKD to a high-dose or a low-dose IV iron regimen, with a primary composite outcome of all-cause death, heart attack, stroke, or hospitalization for heart failure. Comparison of infection rates between the two groups was a prespecified secondary analysis. METHODS Secondary end points included any infection, hospitalization for infection, and death from infection; we calculated cumulative event rates for these end points. We also interrogated the interaction between iron dose and vascular access (fistula versus catheter). RESULTS We found no significant difference between the high-dose IV iron group compared with the lose-dose group in event rates for all infections (46.5% versus 45.5%, respectively, which represented incidences of 63.3 versus 69.4 per 100 patient years, respectively); rates of hospitalization for infection (29.6% versus 29.3%, respectively) also did not differ. We did find a significant association between risk of a first cardiovascular event and any infection in the previous 30 days. Compared with patients undergoing dialysis with an arteriovenous fistula, those doing so via a catheter had a higher incidence of having any infection, hospitalization for infection, or fatal infection, but IV iron dosing had no effect on these outcomes. CONCLUSIONS The high-dose and low-dose IV iron groups exhibited identical infection rates. Risk of a first cardiovascular event strongly associated with a recent infection.
Randomized Trial Comparing Proactive, High-Dose versus Reactive, Low-Dose Intravenous Iron Supplementation in Hemodialysis (PIVOTAL): Study Design and Baseline Data
American Journal of Nephrology. 2018;48((4)):260-268.
BACKGROUND Intravenous (IV) iron supplementation is a standard maintenance treatment for hemodialysis (HD) patients, but the optimum dosing regimen is unknown. METHODS PIVOTAL (Proactive IV irOn Therapy in hemodiALysis patients) is a multicenter, open-label, blinded endpoint, randomized controlled (PROBE) trial. Incident HD adults with a serum ferritin < 400 microg/L and transferrin saturation (TSAT) levels < 30% receiving erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) were eligible. Enrolled patients were randomized to a proactive, high-dose IV iron arm (iron sucrose 400 mg/month unless ferritin > 700 microg/L and/or TSAT ≥40%) or a reactive, low-dose IV iron arm (iron sucrose administered if ferritin <200 microg/L or TSAT < 20%). We hypothesized that proactive, high-dose IV iron would be noninferior to reactive, low-dose IV iron for the primary outcome of first occurrence of nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), nonfatal stroke, hospitalization for heart failure or death from any cause. If noninferiority is confirmed with a noninferiority limit of 1.25 for the hazard ratio of the proactive strategy relative to the reactive strategy, a test for superiority will be carried out. Secondary outcomes include infection-related endpoints, ESA dose requirements, and quality-of-life measures. As an event-driven trial, the study will continue until at least 631 primary outcome events have accrued, but the expected duration of follow-up is 2-4 years. RESULTS Of the 2,589 patients screened across 50 UK sites, 2,141 (83%) were randomized. At baseline, 65.3% were male, the median age was 65 years, and 79% were white. According to eligibility criteria, all patients were on ESA at screening. Prior stroke and MI were present in 8 and 9% of the cohort, respectively, and 44% of patients had diabetes at baseline. Baseline data for the randomized cohort were generally concordant with recent data from the UK Renal Registry. CONCLUSIONS PIVOTAL will provide important information about the optimum dosing of IV iron in HD patients representative of usual clinical practice. TRIAL REGISTRATION EudraCT number: 2013-002267-25.
Intravenous Iron in Patients Undergoing Maintenance Hemodialysis
The New England Journal of Medicine. 2018
BACKGROUND Intravenous iron is a standard treatment for patients undergoing hemodialysis, but comparative data regarding clinically effective regimens are limited. METHODS In a multicenter, open-label trial with blinded end-point evaluation, we randomly assigned adults undergoing maintenance hemodialysis to receive either high-dose iron sucrose, administered intravenously in a proactive fashion (400 mg monthly, unless the ferritin concentration was >700 mug per liter or the transferrin saturation was ≥40%), or low-dose iron sucrose, administered intravenously in a reactive fashion (0 to 400 mg monthly, with a ferritin concentration of <200 mug per liter or a transferrin saturation of <20% being a trigger for iron administration). The primary end point was the composite of nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, hospitalization for heart failure, or death, assessed in a time-to-first-event analysis. These end points were also analyzed as recurrent events. Other secondary end points included death, infection rate, and dose of an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent. Noninferiority of the high-dose group to the low-dose group would be established if the upper boundary of the 95% confidence interval for the hazard ratio for the primary end point did not cross 1.25. RESULTS A total of 2141 patients underwent randomization (1093 patients to the high-dose group and 1048 to the low-dose group). The median follow-up was 2.1 years. Patients in the high-dose group received a median monthly iron dose of 264 mg (interquartile range [25th to 75th percentile], 200 to 336), as compared with 145 mg (interquartile range, 100 to 190) in the low-dose group. The median monthly dose of an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent was 29,757 IU in the high-dose group and 38,805 IU in the low-dose group (median difference, -7539 IU; 95% confidence interval [CI], -9485 to -5582). A total of 333 patients (30.5%) in the high-dose group had a primary end-point event, as compared with 343 (32.7%) in the low-dose group (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.76 to 1.03; P<0.001 for noninferiority). In an analysis that used a recurrent-events approach, there were 456 events in the high-dose group and 538 in the low-dose group (rate ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.92). The infection rate was the same in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS Among patients undergoing hemodialysis, a high-dose intravenous iron regimen administered proactively was noninferior to a low-dose regimen administered reactively and resulted in lower doses of erythropoiesis-stimulating agent being administered. (Funded by Kidney Research UK; PIVOTAL EudraCT number, 2013-002267-25 .).
A randomized trial of iron isomaltoside 1000 versus oral iron in non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease patients with anaemia
Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation. 2016;31((4)):646-655.
BACKGROUND Iron deficiency anaemia is common in patients with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (NDD-CKD) and is often treated with oral or intravenous (IV) iron therapy. This trial compared the efficacy and safety of IV iron isomaltoside 1000 (Monofer(R)) and oral iron in NDD-CKD patients with renal-related anaemia. METHODS The trial was a Phase III open-label, comparative, multicentre, non-inferiority trial conducted in 351 iron-deficient NDD-CKD patients, randomized 2:1 to either iron isomaltoside 1000 (Group A) or iron sulphate administered as 100 mg elemental oral iron twice daily (200 mg daily) for 8 weeks (Group B). The patients in Group A were randomized into A1 (infusion of max. 1000 mg single doses over 15 min) and A2 (bolus injections of 500 mg over 2 min). A modified Ganzoni formula was used to calculate IV iron need. The primary end point was change in haemoglobin concentrations from baseline to Week 4. RESULTS Iron isomaltoside 1000 was both non-inferior to oral iron at Week 4 (P < 0.001) and sustained a superior increase in haemoglobin from Week 3 until the end of the study at Week 8 (P = 0.009 at Week 3). The haemoglobin response was more pronounced with iron isomaltoside 1000 doses ≥1000 mg (P < 0.05). Serum-ferritin and transferrin saturation concentrations were also significantly increased with IV iron. Adverse drug reactions were observed in 10.5% in the iron isomaltoside 1000 group and 10.3% in the oral iron group. More patients treated with oral iron sulphate withdrew from the study due to adverse events (4.3 versus 0.9%, P = 0.2). CONCLUSIONS Iron isomaltoside 1000 was more efficacious than oral iron for increase in haemoglobin and proved to be well tolerated at the tested dose levels in NDD-CKD patients.
A randomized, open-label trial of iron isomaltoside 1000 (Monofer) compared with iron sucrose (Venofer) as maintenance therapy in haemodialysis patients
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation. 2015;30((9)):1577-89.
BACKGROUND Iron deficiency anaemia is common in patients with chronic kidney disease, and intravenous iron is the preferred treatment for those on haemodialysis. The aim of this trial was to compare the efficacy and safety of iron isomaltoside 1000 (Monofer) with iron sucrose (Venofer) in haemodialysis patients. METHODS This was an open-label, randomized, multicentre, non-inferiority trial conducted in 351 haemodialysis subjects randomized 2 : 1 to either iron isomaltoside 1000 (Group A) or iron sucrose (Group B). Subjects in Group A were equally divided into A1 (500 mg single bolus injection) and A2 (500 mg split dose). Group B were also treated with 500 mg split dose. The primary end point was the proportion of subjects with haemoglobin (Hb) in the target range 9.5-12.5 g/dL at 6 weeks. Secondary outcome measures included haematology parameters and safety parameters. RESULTS A total of 351 subjects were enrolled. Both treatments showed similar efficacy with >82% of subjects with Hb in the target range (non-inferiority, P = 0.01). Similar results were found when comparing subgroups A1 and A2 with Group B. No statistical significant change in Hb concentration was found between any of the groups. There was a significant increase in ferritin from baseline to Weeks 1, 2 and 4 in Group A compared with Group B (Weeks 1 and 2: P < 0.001; Week 4: P = 0.002). There was a significant higher increase in reticulocyte count in Group A compared with Group B at Week 1 (P < 0.001). The frequency, type and severity of adverse events were similar. CONCLUSIONS Iron isomaltoside 1000 and iron sucrose have comparative efficacy in maintaining Hb concentrations in haemodialysis subjects and both preparations were well tolerated with a similar short-term safety profile.Copyright © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA.