Comparison of 5% human albumin and normal saline for fluid resuscitation in sepsis induced hypotension among patients with cirrhosis (FRISC study): a randomized controlled trial
Hepatology international. 2021
AIMS: Sepsis and septic shock are common causes of hospitalization and mortality in patients with cirrhosis. There is no data on the choice of fluid and resuscitation protocols in sepsis-induced hypotension in cirrhosis. METHODS In this open-label trial conducted at a single center, we enrolled 308 cirrhotics with sepsis-induced hypotension and randomized them to receive either 5% albumin or normal saline. The primary endpoint was a reversal of hypotension [mean arterial pressure, MAP, ≥ 65 mmHg] at 3 h. Secondary endpoints included serial effects on heart rate, arterial lactate and urine output. RESULTS 154 patients each received 5% albumin (males, 79.8%, mean MAP 52.9 ± 7.0 mm Hg) or 0.9% saline (85.1%, 53.4 ± 6.3 mm Hg) with comparable baseline parameters and liver disease severity. Reversal of hypotension was higher in patients receiving 5% albumin than saline at the end of one hour [25.3% and 11.7%, p = 0.03, Odds ratio (95% CI)-1.9 (1.08-3.42)] and at the end of three hours [11.7% and 3.2%, p = 0.008, 3.9 (1.42-10.9)]. Sustained reduction in heart rate and hyperlactatemia (p < 0.001) was better in the albumin group. At one week, the proportion of patients surviving was higher in the albumin group than those receiving saline (43.5% vs 38.3%, p = 0.03). Female gender and SOFA ≥ 11 were predictors of non-response to fluid. CONCLUSIONS 5% human albumin is safe and beneficial in reversing sepsis-induced hypotension compared to normal saline in patients with cirrhosis improving clinically assessable parameters of systemic hemodynamics, tissue perfusion and in-hospital short-term survival of cirrhosis patients with sepsis.
Thromboelastography-Guided Blood Component Use in Patients With Cirrhosis With Nonvariceal Bleeding: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.). 2019
Thromboelastography (TEG) provides a more comprehensive global coagulation assessment than routine tests (international normalized ratio [INR] and platelet [PLT] count), and its use may avoid unnecessary blood component transfusion in patients with advanced cirrhosis and significant coagulopathy who have nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. A total of 96 patients with significant coagulopathy (defined in this study as INR >1.8 and/or PLT count <50 x 10(9) /L) and nonvariceal upper GI bleed (diagnosed after doing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy [UGIE], which showed ongoing bleed from a nonvariceal source) were randomly allocated to TEG-guided transfusion strategy (TEG group; n = 49) or standard-of-care (SOC) group (n = 47). In the TEG group, only 26.5% patients were transfused with all three blood components (fresh frozen plasma [FFP], PLTs, and cryoprecipitate) versus 87.2% in the SOC group (P < 0.001). Whereas 7 (14.3%) patients in the TEG group received no blood component transfusion, there were no such patients in the SOC group (P = 0.012). Also, there was a significantly lower use of blood components (FFP, PLTs, and cryoprecipitate) in the TEG group compared to the SOC group. Failure to control bleed, failure to prevent rebleeds, and mortality between the two groups were similar. CONCLUSION In patients with advanced cirrhosis with coagulopathy and nonvariceal upper GI bleeding, TEG-guided transfusion strategy leads to a significantly lower use of blood components compared to SOC (transfusion guided by INR and PLT count), without an increase in failure to control bleed, failure to prevent rebleed, and mortality.
Combination of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and erythropoietin improves outcomes of patients with decompensated cirrhosis
BACKGROUND & AIMS Patients with decompensated cirrhosis have significantly reduced survival without liver transplantation. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been shown to increase survival in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure, and erythropoietin promoted hepatic regeneration in animal studies. We performed a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to determine whether co-administration of these growth factors improved outcomes for patients with advanced cirrhosis. METHODS In a prospective study, consecutive patients with decompensated cirrhosis seen at the Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, New Delhi (from May 2011 through June 2012) were randomly assigned to groups given subcutaneous G-CSF (5 mug/kg/d) for 5 days and then every third day (12 total doses), along with subcutaneous darbopoietin alpha(40 mcg/wk) for 4 weeks (GDP group, n = 29), or only placebos (control group, n = 26). All patients also received standard medical therapy and were followed for 12 months. Histology was performed on liver biopsies. The primary end point was survival at 12 months. RESULTS Baseline characteristics of patients were comparable; alcohol intake was the most common etiology of cirrhosis. A higher proportion of patients in the GDP group than controls survived until 12 months (68.6% vs 26.9%; P = .003). At 12 months, Child-Turcotte Pugh scores were reduced by 48.6% in the GDP group and 39.1% in the control group, from baseline (P = .001); Model for End Stage Liver Disease scores were reduced by 40.4% and 33%, respectively (P = .03). The need for large-volume paracentesis was significantly reduced in GDP group, compared with controls (P < .05). A lower proportion of patients in the GDP group developed septic shock (6.9%) during follow-up compared with controls (38.5%; P = .005). No major adverse events were observed in either group. CONCLUSIONS In a single-center randomized trial, a significantly larger proportion of patients with decompensated cirrhosis given a combination of G-CSF and darbopoietin alpha survived for 12 months more than patients given only placebo. The combination therapy also reduced liver severity scores and sepsis to a greater extent than placebo. Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT01384565.Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Immunomodulatory therapies in neurologic critical care
Neurocritical Care. 2010;12((1):):132-43.
INTRODUCTION Neurologic disorders with autoimmune dysregulation are commonly encountered in the critical care setting. Frequently encountered diseases include Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), myasthenia gravis, multiple sclerosis, acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis, and encephalitides. Immunomodulatory therapies, including high-dose corticosteroids, plasmapheresis, and intravenous immunoglobulins, are the cornerstone of the treatment of these diseases. Here we review the efficacy and side effects of immunomodulatory therapies commonly utilized in critically ill neurologic patients in the intensive care setting. METHODS Search of Medline, Cochrane databases, and manual review of article bibliographies. RESULTS The efficacy of high-dose corticosteroids, plasmapheresis, and intravenous immunoglobulins have been studied extensively in GBS, myasthenia gravis, and demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis and acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis. For these diseases, however, the duration of treatment, dosing regimens, and choices among different therapeutic modalities remain controversial. For many of the other diseases (e.g., encephalitis and status epilepticus of autoimmune etiology) discussed in this review, evidence is limited to small case series. CONCLUSIONS There is good evidence for the efficacy and tolerability of immunomodulatory therapies in GBS, myasthenia gravis, and acute central nervous system demyelination, though data to establish superiority of one therapeutic regimen over another remains lacking. For most other conditions, the data for immunomodulatory therapies are limited, and further research is required.