Clinical and biochemical endpoints and predictors of response to plasma exchange in septic shock: results from a randomized controlled trial
Critical care (London, England). 2022;26(1):134
BACKGROUND Recently, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) demonstrated rapid but individually variable hemodynamic improvement with therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) in patients with septic shock. Prediction of clinical efficacy in specific sepsis treatments is fundamental for individualized sepsis therapy. METHODS In the original RCT, patients with septic shock of < 24 h duration and norepinephrine (NE) requirement ≥ 0.4 μg/kg/min received standard of care (SOC) or SOC + one single TPE. Here, we report all clinical and biological endpoints of this study. Multivariate mixed-effects modeling of NE reduction was performed to investigate characteristics that could be associated with clinical response to TPE. RESULTS A continuous effect of TPE on the reduction in NE doses over the initial 24 h was observed (SOC group: estimated NE dose reduction of 0.005 µg/kg/min per hour; TPE group: 0.018 µg/kg/min per hour, p = 0.004). Similarly, under TPE, serum lactate levels, continuously decreased over the initial 24 h in the TPE group, whereas lactate levels increased under SOC (p = 0.001). A reduction in biomarkers and disease mediators (such as PCT (p = 0.037), vWF:Ag (p < 0.001), Angpt-2 (p = 0.009), sTie-2 (p = 0.005)) along with a repletion of exhausted protective factors (such as AT-III (p = 0.026), Protein C (p = 0.012), ADAMTS-13 (p = 0.008)) could be observed in the TPE but not in the SOC group. In a multivariate mixed effects model, increasing baseline lactate levels led to greater NE dose reduction effects with TPE as opposed to SOC (p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS Adjunctive TPE is associated with the removal of injurious mediators and repletion of consumed protective factors altogether leading to preserved hemodynamic stabilization in refractory septic shock. We identified that baseline lactate concentration as a potential response predictor might guide future designing of large RCTs that will further evaluate TPE with regard to hard endpoints. Trial registration Retrospectively registered 18th January 2020 at clinicaltrials.gov (Identifier: NCT04231994 ).
Blood transfusion and ischaemic outcomes according to anemia and bleeding in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes: Insights from the TAO randomized clinical trial
Int J Cardiol. 2020
BACKGROUND The benefits and risks of blood transfusion in patients with acute myocardial infarction who are anemic or who experience bleeding are debated. We sought to study the association between blood transfusion and ischemic outcomes according to haemoglobin nadir and bleeding status in patients with NST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). METHODS The TAO trial randomized patients with NSTEMI and coronary angiogram scheduled within 72h to heparin plus eptifibatide versus otamixaban. After exclusion of patients who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery, patients were categorized according to transfusion status considering transfusion as a time-varying covariate. The primary ischemic outcome was the composite of all-cause death or MI within 180 days of randomization. Subgroup analyses were performed according to pre-transfusion hemoglobin nadir and bleeding status. RESULTS 12,547 patients were enrolled. Among these, blood transfusion was used in 489 (3.9%) patients. Patients who received transfusion had a higher rate of death or MI (29.9% vs. 8.1%, p<0.01). This excess risk persisted after adjustment on GRACE score and nadir of hemoglobin (HR 3.36 95%CI 2.63-4.29 p<0.01). Subgroup analyses showed that blood transfusion was associated with a higher risk in patients without overt bleeding (adjusted HR 6.25 vs. 2.85; p-interaction 0.001) as well as in those with hemoglobin nadir > 9.0 g/dl (HR 4.01; p-interaction<0.0001). CONCLUSION In patients with NSTEMI, blood transfusion was associated with an overall increased risk of ischaemic events. However, this was mainly driven by patients without overt bleeding and those hemoglobin nadir > 9.0g/dl. This suggests possible harm of transfusion in those groups.
Association of International Normalized Ratio Stability and Bleeding Outcomes Among Atrial Fibrillation Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
Circulation. Cardiovascular interventions. 2019;12(2):e007124
BACKGROUND Among atrial fibrillation patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention enrolled in PIONEER AF-PCI (An Open-Label, Randomized, Controlled, Multicenter Study Exploring Two Treatment Strategies of Rivaroxaban and a Dose-Adjusted Oral Vitamin K Antagonist Treatment Strategy in Subjects With Atrial Fibrillation Who Undergo Percutaneous Coronary Intervention), it is unclear if the observed reduction in bleeding events with rivaroxaban regimens is consistent across a range of the international normalized ratio (INR) among subjects administrated Vitamin K antagonist (VKA)-triple therapy. This analysis compares the occurrence of clinically significant bleeding between rivaroxaban and VKA strategies, according to INR stability of subjects administrated VKA. METHODS AND RESULTS A total of 2124 atrial fibrillation patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention were randomized to 3 groups: rivaroxaban 15 mg od plus a P2Y12 inhibitor (group 1, n=709); rivaroxaban 2.5 mg bid plus dual antiplatelet therapy (group 2, n=709); and warfarin plus dual antiplatelet therapy (group 3, n=706). Subjects assigned to the VKA group were stratified according to time in therapeutic range and time spent with an INR >3. Kaplan-Meier estimates were calculated for clinically significant bleeding through 1 year and hazard ratios were derived using Cox Proportional Hazards models. Among group 3, 93.4% of the participants had a time in therapeutic range available (mean time in therapeutic range=65.0+/-24.8%). Both groups 1 and 2 were associated with a reduction in clinically significant bleeding compared with subjects in group 3, regardless of the time in therapeutic range (hazard ratio ranges=0.53-0.71 and 0.57-0.76; respectively, P<0.05 for all). Rivaroxaban strategies were associated with a reduction in clinically significant bleeding compared with VKA regardless of the proportion of time spent with an INR >3 (hazard ratio ranges=0.59-0.67 and 0.42-0.69; P<0.05 for all). CONCLUSIONS Among atrial fibrillation patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, rivaroxaban-based therapy was superior to warfarin plus dual antiplatelet therapy in lowering bleeding outcomes regardless of the INR stability. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT01830543.