Reduced dose intravenous immunoglobulin does not decrease transplant-related complications in adults given related donor marrow allografts
Biology of Blood & Marrow Transplantation. 1999;5((6):):369-78.
Graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) and infection are major complications of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) given at a dose of 500 mg/kg/wk has been shown to decrease the risk of acute GVHD, interstitial pneumonia, and infection in adults early after allogeneic transplantation. The current study is a controlled trial to determine whether a lower total dose of IVIg given with pretransplant loading reduces the incidence of transplant-related complications. In a randomized trial of 241 patients > or =20 years of age who were given related donor marrow allografts, 121 individuals receiving Ig prophylaxis (500 mg/kg/d loading from day -6 to -1 and then 100 mg/kg every 3 days from day 3 to 90) were compared with 120 control patients who did not receive IVIg. Randomization was stratified by human leucocyte antigen-matching, remission status of malignancy, GVHD prophylaxis, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) serology. The study was powered to detect a reduction in acute GVHD by 18% and a decrease in transplant-related mortality by 17%. Pretransplant IVIg loading and posttransplant maintenance achieved median serum IgG levels >1350 mg/dL, which were approximately twofold greater than the untreated controls (p<0.01). White blood cell and platelet recoveries were similar for the two groups, although control patients required fewer units of platelets per day (2.5 vs. 3.3, p = 0.008). No significant differences in the incidence of CMV infection, interstitial pneumonia, or bacteremia were observed. The incidence of acute GVHD did not differ between the two groups; however, acute GVHD was less frequent among IVIg recipients achieving maximum serum IgG levels >3000 mg/dL (60 vs. 79%). Neither transplant-related mortality nor disease-free survival was significantly altered by Ig prophylaxis. However, the cumulative incidence of relapse of malignancy was higher in IVIg recipients than in controls (31 vs. 18%, p = 0.03). Multivariable regression analysis demonstrated a 1.89 increased relative risk of relapse for individuals given IVIg (p = 0.021). We conclude that pretransplant loading and a shorter course and lower total dose of IVIg prophylaxis did not appear to decrease the risk of acute GVHD or mortality among adults receiving related donor marrow transplants. Note, IVIg administration may be associated with an increased risk of recurrent malignancy, a finding that warrants further investigation.
A controlled trial of long-term administration of intravenous immunoglobulin to prevent late infection and chronic graft-vs.-host disease after marrow transplantation: clinical outcome and effect on subsequent immune recovery
Biology of Blood & Marrow Transplantation. 1996;2((1):):44-53.
To determine whether intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) given monthly from day 90 to day 360 posttransplantation decreased the incidence of late infection, chronic graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD), and obliterative bronchiolitis after marrow transplantation, patients were assigned randomly to receive either IVIg (500 mg/kg/month) or no IVIg prophylaxis. Participants were registered before transplantation, and 250 patients (123 IVIg and 127 control) were evaluable for events after day 100. The two groups were balanced for age, marrow source, cytomegalovirus (CMV) seropositivity, pretransplantation conditioning, and prophylaxis for infection and GVHD. Between days 100 and 365 posttransplantation, the incidence of bacteremia or septicemia per 100 patient-days of risk was 0.10 in the IVIg group and 0.12 in the controls (p = not significant). During the same period, the incidence of localized infection was marginally higher in control patients than in IVIg recipients (0.44 vs. 0.24, respectively; relative risk [RR] 1.46, p < 0.07). Administration of IVIg prophylaxis had no effect on survival, the incidence of obliterative bronchiolitis, severity of airflow obstruction, or the incidence or mortality of chronic GVHD. After discontinuing IVIg prophylaxis at day 360, subsequent recovery of endogeneous humoral immunity was impaired (serum IgG1 and IgA levels were significantly lower than controls at day 730), and total infections were less common in the second year in control patients than in former IVIg recipients (0.12 vs 0.19, respectively; RR 0.61, p = 0.03). We conclude that in the absence of hypogammaglobulinemia, monthly administration of IVIg given from day 90 to 360 does not reduce late complications and may impair long-term humoral immune recovery after marrow transplantation.
A comparison of filtered leukocyte-reduced and cytomegalovirus (CMV) seronegative blood products for the prevention of transfusion-associated CMV infection after marrow transplant
Comparison of filtered blood (FB) to seronegative blood products (SB) for prevention of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection after marrow transplant
Blood. 1993;82:204a.. Abstract No. 800.
Use of leukocyte-depleted platelets and cytomegalovirus-seronegative red blood cells for prevention of primary cytomegalovirus infection after marrow transplant
Seventy-seven cytomegalovirus (CMV)-seronegative marrow transplant patients were randomized in a prospective controlled trial comparing the use of leukocyte-depleted platelets plus CMV-seronegative red blood cells with standard unscreened blood products for the prevention of primary CMV infection during the first 100 days after transplant. Eligible patients included CMV-seronegative patients undergoing autologous transplant or seronegative patients undergoing allogeneic transplant for aplastic anemia or non-hematologic malignancy who had seronegative marrow donors. Patients and marrow donors were serologically screened for CMV and randomized before conditioning for transplant and followed for CMV infection with weekly cultures of throat, urine, and blood and with weekly CMV serologies until day 100 after transplant. Leukocyte-depleted platelets were prepared by centrifugation, a procedure that removed greater than 99% of leukocytes. There were no CMV infections observed in 35 evaluable treatment patients compared with seven infections in 30 evaluable control patients (P = .0013). There was no statistically significant difference in the mean number of platelet concentrates in the treatment patients (164 concentrates) compared with the control patients (126 concentrates). Leukocyte-depleted platelets plus CMV-seronegative red blood cells are highly effective in preventing primary CMV infection after marrow transplant.
Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific intravenous immunoglobulin for the prevention of primary CMV infection and disease after marrow transplant
Journal of Infectious Diseases. 1991;164((3):):483-7.
Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific immunoglobulin (IVIG) was evaluated in a randomized controlled trial in CMV-seronegative marrow transplant patients with seropositive marrow donors for the prevention of primary CMV infection during the first 100 days after transplant. Patients received 200 mg/kg CMV IVIG on days 8 and 6 before transplant, the day after transplant, weekly for the first month, and then every 2 weeks to complete 10 doses. Patients were followed with weekly CMV cultures and serologic studies and for clinical and histologic evidence of CMV disease. Sixty patients were evaluable in each group. There was significantly less CMV excretion (P = .04) and viremia (P = .01) in the treatment group. However, the incidence of CMV disease including CMV pneumonia, CMV enteritis, and CMV syndrome (fever, leukopenia, hepatitis) was not statistically different. There was also no difference in median time of onset of CMV infection or disease, median number of hospital days, or survival between the two groups.
Immunomodulatory and antimicrobial efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulin in bone marrow transplantation
New England Journal of Medicine. 1990;323((11):):705-12.
BACKGROUND Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and infection are major complications of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Since intravenous immunoglobulin has shown benefit in several immunodeficiency and autoimmune disorders, we studied its antimicrobial and immunomodulatory role after marrow transplantation. METHODS In a randomized trial of 382 patients, transplant recipients given immunoglobulin (500 mg per kilogram of body weight weekly to day 90, then monthly to day 360 after transplantation) were compared with controls not given immunoglobulin. By chance, the immunoglobulin group included more patients with advanced-stage neoplasms; otherwise, the study groups were balanced for prognostic factors. RESULTS Control patients seronegative for cytomegalovirus who received seronegative blood products remained seronegative, but seronegative patients who received immunoglobulin and screened blood had a passive transfer of cytomegalovirus antibody (median titer, 1:64). Among the 61 seronegative patients who could be evaluated, none contracted interstitial pneumonia; among the 308 seropositive patients evaluated, 22 percent of control patients and 13 percent of immunoglobulin recipients had this complication (P = 0.021). Control patients had an increased risk of gram-negative septicemia (relative risk = 2.65, P = 0.0039) and local infection (relative risk = 1.36, P = 0.029) and received 51 more units of platelets than did immunoglobulin recipients. Neither survival nor the risk of relapse was altered by immunoglobulin. However, among patients greater than or equal to 20 years old, there was a reduction in the incidence of acute GVHD (51 percent in controls vs. 34 percent in immunoglobulin recipients; P = 0.0051) and a decrease in deaths due to transplant-related causes after transplantation of HLA-identical marrow (46 percent vs. 30 percent; P = 0.023). CONCLUSIONS Passive immunotherapy with intravenous immunoglobulin decreases the risk of acute GVHD, associated interstitial pneumonia, and infections after bone marrow transplantation.
The effect of prophylactic intravenous immune globulin on the incidence of septicemia in marrow transplant recipients
Bone Marrow Transplantation. 1987;2((2):):141-7.
Ninety-seven patients randomized to receive (45 patients) or not to receive (52 patients) intravenous cytomegalovirus immune globulin before and after allogeneic marrow transplantation were evaluated retrospectively for the occurrence of bacterial and fungal septicemia in the first 100 days post-transplant. In a proportional hazards regression test, infection prevention regimens, immunoglobulin administration, age and occurrence of acute graft-versus-host disease were tested simultaneously for the occurrence of septicemia in the pre- and post-engraftment period. Of these factors, only patients receiving immunoglobulin had significantly fewer episodes of septicemia following engraftment with 11 (26%) patients in the globulin group having 14 episodes compared to 22 (42%) patients in the control group having 27 episodes (p = 0.039). None of the patients experienced complications with the immunoglobulin infusions. These results suggest that the administration of intravenous immunoglobulin may be a practical and effective method to decrease the incidence of septicemia following marrow transplantation.
Cytomegalovirus immune globulin and seronegative blood products to prevent primary cytomegalovirus infection after marrow transplantation
New England Journal of Medicine. 1986;314((16):):1006-10.
In an attempt to prevent primary cytomegalovirus infection after marrow transplantation, we randomly assigned 97 patients who were seronegative for antibody to cytomegalovirus before transplantation to receive one of the following: (1) both intravenous cytomegalovirus immune globulin and seronegative blood products (23 patients); (2) seronegative blood products alone (28 patients); (3) globulin alone (22 patients); or (4) neither treatment (24 patients). Patients not assigned to receive seronegative blood products received unscreened blood products from random donors. The incidence of cytomegalovirus infection according to study group among patients in the study for at least 62 days was 5 percent, 13 percent, 24 percent, and 40 percent, respectively. Among 57 patients with seronegative marrow donors, those who received seronegative blood products had significantly less infection (1 of 32) than those who received standard blood products (8 of 25, P less than 0.007). In contrast, the use of seronegative blood products did not appear to prevent cytomegalovirus infection among patients with seropositive marrow donors. The possibility that cytomegalovirus immune globulin as used in this study can prevent cytomegalovirus infection or ameliorate cytomegalovirus disease was not confirmed, and it cannot be recommended for routine use without additional study.