Autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation for treatment-refractory relapsing multiple sclerosis: Position statement from the american society for blood and marrow transplantation
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 2019
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, disabling, immune-mediated, central nervous system demyelinating and degenerative disease. Approved disease modifying therapies may be incompletely effective in some patients with highly active relapsing disease and high risk of disability. Immunoablative or myeloablative therapy followed by autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) has been investigated in retrospective studies, clinical trials, and meta-analyses/systematic reviews as an approach to address this unmet clinical need. On behalf of the American Society for Blood and Bone Marrow Transplantation (ASBMT), a panel of experts in AHCT and MS convened to review available evidence and make recommendations on MS as an indication for AHCT. Review of recent literature identified eight retrospective studies, eight clinical trials, and three meta-analyses/systematic reviews. In aggregate, these studies indicate that AHCT is an efficacious and safe treatment for active relapsing forms of MS to prevent clinical relapses, MRI lesion activity, and disability worsening, and to reverse disability, without unexpected adverse events. Based on the available evidence, the ASBMT recommends that treatment-refractory relapsing MS with high risk of future disability be considered a "standard of care, clinical evidence available" indication for AHCT. Collaboration of neurologists with expertise in treating MS and transplant physicians with experience performing AHCT for autoimmune disease is crucial for appropriate patient selection and optimizing transplant procedures to improve patient outcomes. Transplant centers in the United States and Canada are strongly encouraged to report baseline and outcomes data on patients receiving AHCT for multiple sclerosis to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research.
Optimal transfusion practices after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: a systematic scoping review of evidence from randomized controlled trials
BACKGROUND Integrating evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) into patient care is needed to optimize patient outcomes. Transfusion support during allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) is a cornerstone of essential supportive care, yet optimal transfusion practices remain unclear. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS A scoping review of RCTs in alloHCT was conducted and 14 full-length articles on transfusion practice were identified that reported clinical outcomes after alloHCT. RESULTS Eight RCTs compared various interventions related to platelet (PLT) transfusion, addressing product storage duration, dosage, and threshold for transfusion. Restrictive prophylactic PLT transfusion strategies were successful at reducing PLT consumption without impacting clinical outcomes. One study, however, reported increased bleeding associated with a strategy whereby patients did not receive prophylactic PLT transfusions. One study of thrombopoietin was associated with reduced PLT transfusion events but no difference in clinical outcomes compared to placebo. Six RCTs examined the utility of recombinant erythropoietin (EPO) in reducing red blood cell (RBC) transfusion dependence. Four trials reported an increase in hemoglobin levels while five studies demonstrated a reduction in RBC utilization; however, clinical outcomes were variably reported and no differences were identified. There were no RCTs examining RBC transfusion strategies, plasma transfusion, or plasma-derived protein administration. CONCLUSION Prophylactic PLT transfusion when PLTs are fewer than 10 x 109 /L can prevent bleeding and is consistent with recent guidelines. Thrombopoietin and EPO can reduce transfusion requirements; however, potential safety concerns remain and the lack of improvement in clinical outcomes and high cost may limit use. Additional RCTs are needed, particularly with regard to RBC transfusion thresholds, to refine best practices after alloHCT.