Antifibrinolytic agents in plastic surgery: current practices and future directions
Brown S, Yao A, Taub PJ
Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery. 141(6):937e-949e, 2018 Jun.. 2018;141((6):):937e-949e
BACKGROUND Prevention of blood loss is a chief consideration in plastic and reconstructive surgery. The antifibrinolytic drugs tranexamic acid and epsilon-aminocaproic acid have emerged as promising agents to reduce both perioperative blood loss and transfusion requirements. However, published reports in the plastic surgery literature are lacking. The authors sought to summarize the current knowledge of the use of antifibrinolytics in plastic surgery by reviewing the existing literature for clinical outcomes and recommendations. METHODS A systematic review of the PubMed, Cochrane, and Google Scholar databases was conducted for publications examining the use of antifibrinolytics in plastic surgery. Studies were abstracted for procedure type, antifibrinolytic dose, time and mode of administration, blood loss, transfusion requirements, and complications. RESULTS Thirty-three studies were deemed eligible for inclusion, comprising a total of 1823 patients undergoing plastic surgical procedures with tranexamic acid (n = 1328) and/or epsilon-aminocaproic acid (n = 495). CONCLUSIONS Tranexamic acid and epsilon-aminocaproic acid are widely used to reduce blood loss and transfusion requirements in craniofacial and orthognathic surgery, without an increased risk of adverse events. Intravenous administration is most commonly used, although topical formulations show similar efficacy with a reduced systemic distribution. Tranexamic acid has also emerged as a promising agent in aesthetic surgery and burn care, due to its favorable safety profile and role in reducing blood loss, achieving an improved surgical field, and reducing edema and ecchymosis. Further investigation of these agents in the fields of burn care, aesthetic surgery, and microsurgery is warranted to standardize protocols for clinical use.
Transfusion of red blood cells in patients with a prehospital Glasgow Coma Scale score of 8 or less and no evidence of shock is associated with worse outcomes
Elterman J, Brasel K, Brown S, Bulger E, Christenson J, Kerby JD, Kannas D, Lin S, Minei JP, Rizoli S, et al
The Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery. 2013;75((1):):8-14; discussion 14.
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BACKGROUND Red blood cell transfusion practices vary, and the optimal hemoglobin for patients with traumatic brain injury has not been established. METHODS A retrospective review of data collected prospectively as part of a randomized, controlled trial involving emergency medical service agencies within the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium was conducted. In patients with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 8 or less without evidence of shock (defined by a systolic blood pressure [SBP] < 70 or SBP of 70 to 90 with a heart rate >=108), the association of red blood cell transfusion with 28-day survival, adult respiratory distress syndrome-free survival, Multiple Organ Dysfunction Score (MODs), and 6-month Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE) score was modeled using multivariable logistic regression with robust SEs adjusting for age, sex, injury severity (Injury Severity Score [ISS]), initial GCS score, initial SBP, highest field heart rate, penetrating injury, fluid use, study site, and hemoglobin (Hgb) level. RESULTS A total of 1,158 patients had a mean age of 40, 76% were male, and 98% experienced blunt trauma. The initial mean GCS score was 5, and the initial mean SBP was 134. The mean head Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score was 3.5. A categorical interaction of red blood cell transfusion stratified by initial Hgb showed that when the first Hgb was greater than 10 g/dL, volume of packed red blood cell was associated with a decreased 28-day survival (odds ratio, 0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74-0.93; p < 0.01) and decreased adult respiratory distress syndrome-free survival (odds ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.74-0.92; p < 0.01). When the initial Hgb was greater than 10, each unit of blood transfused increased the MODs by 0.45 (coefficient 95% CI, 0.19-0.70; p < 0.01). CONCLUSION In patients with a suspected traumatic brain injury and no evidence of shock, transfusion of red blood cells was associated with worse outcomes when the initial Hgb was greater than 10. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Therapeutic study, level III.