Effects of Tourniquet Application on Faster Recovery after Surgery and Ischemia-Reperfusion Post-Total Knee Arthroplasty, Cementation through Closure versus Full-Course and Nontourniquet Group
The journal of knee surgery. 2021
Pneumatic tourniquets are used in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for surgical field visualization and improved cementation; however, their use is controversial. This study aimed to assess the effects of tourniquet application on faster recovery post-TKA. Our hypothesis was that inflammation and limb function would be similar with different tourniquet applications. A prospective randomized double-blinded trial assessed tourniquets effects on postoperative pain, swelling, and early outcome in TKA. In present study, 50 TKAs were enrolled in each group as follows: full course (FC), cementation through closure (CTC), and no tourniquet (NT), CTC as treatment group while FC and NT as control groups. Topical blood samples of 3 mL from the joint cavity and drainage bags were obtained at special time point. At last, all samples such as tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a), C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), pentraxin 3 (PTX3), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), and myoglobin (Mb) were detected by ELISA. Active and passive range of motion (ROM) values, pain score by the visual analog scale (VAS), change of thigh circumference were recorded at special time point as well. In topical blood, the change of inflammatory factors, such as TNF-a, PTX3, CCL2, PGE2, SOD1, and Mb, was lower in CTC and NT groups than in FC group (p < 0.01 and 0.05). Although VAS and ROM were comparable preoperatively in three groups (p > 0.05), the perimeter growth rate was lower, pain scores (VAS) were reduced, and ROM values were improved in CTC and NT groups compared with FC group at T4, T5, and T6 postoperatively (p < 0.01 and 0.05). Improved therapeutic outcome was observed in the CTC group, indicating patients should routinely undergo TKA with cementation through closure tourniquet application.
Effects of tourniquet application on enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) and ischemia-reperfusion post-total knee arthroplasty: Full- versus second half-course application
Journal of orthopaedic surgery (Hong Kong). 2020;28(1):2309499019896026
PURPOSE Pneumatic tourniquets are used in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for surgical field visualization and improved cementation; however, their use is controversial. This study aimed to assess the effects of tourniquet application on enhanced recovery post-TKA. METHODS A prospective randomized single-blinded trial assessed tourniquet's effects on postoperative pain, swelling, and early outcome in TKA. One-hundred and two patients with knee osteoarthritis were randomized to full-course (FC) and second half-course (SHC) application (n = 51/group). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), C-C motif chemokine ligand 2(CCL-2), pentraxin-3 (PTX-3), prostaglandin E-2 (PGE-2), superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1), and myoglobin (Mb) were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, while the visual analog scale (VAS), range of motion (ROM), and thigh circumference growth rate were recorded. RESULTS Average tourniquet duration significantly differed between the SHC (37.5 +/- 5.1 min) and FC (66.4 +/- 7.2 min) groups (p < 0.01); VAS and thigh circumference growth rate in the SHC group were much lower compared with the FC group, while ROM was higher within 48 h of tourniquet removal (p < 0.01). Blood TNF-alpha, PTX3, CCL2, PGE2, SOD-1, and Mb were lower in the SHC group than the FC group (p < 0.01). Additionally, intraoperative blood loss was significantly elevated in the SHC group than the FC group (p < 0.01), with lower postoperative blood loss in the drain (p = 0.001). Postoperative drainage volume was reduced in the SHC group compared with the FC group (p < 0.01); five and two patients in the FC and SHC groups required blood transfusion, respectively (p = 0.025). Hospital stay tended to be shorter in the SHC group (p = 0.023), and no tourniquet-related complications were recorded. CONCLUSION Improved therapeutic outcome was observed in the SHC group, indicating patients should routinely undergo TKA with SHC tourniquet application.
Effect of allogeneic blood transfusion on levels of IL-6 and sIL-R2 in peripheral blood of children with acute lymphocytic leukemia
Oncology Letters. 2018;16((1)):849-852.
Effect of allogeneic blood transfusion on the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) in peripheral blood of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was investigated. A total of 91 ALL children admitted to Nanfang Hospital from June 2014 to January 2017 were selected as the study group. Patients were randomly divided into allogeneic blood transfusion group (n=38) and non-transfusion group (n=53). In addition, a total of 64 healthy children were also selected from June 2014 to January 2017 as the control group. Patients in allogeneic blood transfusion group were transfused with red blood cell suspension and machine-collected platelets, while patients in non-transfusion group were not treated with blood transfusion. Peripheral venous blood was collected before and at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after blood transfusion to prepare serum. Serum IL-6 and sIL-2R levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Before transfusion, serum levels of IL-6 and sIL-2R were significantly lower in the study group than those in control group (p<0.05), and no significant differences in serum levels of IL-6 and sIL-2R were found between the allogeneic blood transfusion and non-transfusion group. After transfusion, serum levels of IL-6 and sIL-2R were stable for 12 weeks in the non-transfusion group, while IL-6 and sIL-2R levels were significantly increased in the allogeneic blood transfusion group. The results showed that serum level of IL-6 and sIL-2R was increased in ALL patients with allogeneic blood transfusion, which resulted in reduced antibody production and decreased cellular immunity. The patients had low immunity, and attention should be paid on the pathogen infection prevention.
Efficacy of fibrin glue versus sutures for attaching conjunctival autografts in pterygium surgery: a systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis of evidence
Previous meta-analyses have been conducted to compare the efficacy of fibrin glue (FG) versus sutures in pterygium surgery; however, additional clinical trials have since been published. Therefore, we conducted an updated meta-analysis to further explore the association between FG application in pterygium surgery, and the recurrence rate, complication rate, and surgical duration. An electronic literature search for eligible studies published before July 29, 2016 was conducted across multiple databases. Odds ratios (ORs), standardized mean difference (SMD), and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Publication bias of the included articles was evaluated by funnel plots. Differences in recurrence rate and complication rate between the FG and suture groups were evaluated in terms of OR with 95% CI, and SMD with 95% CI were used to estimate the difference in surgical duration. Trial sequential analysis (TSA) was used to determine whether the currently available evidence was sufficient and conclusive. Twenty-four studies were included in this study. The pooled ORs for recurrence rate and complication rate were 0.35 and 1.121, respectively. The pooled SMD for surgical duration was -4.142. The TSA results indicated that evidence of the effect was sufficient in the recurrence group and surgical duration group. Although there was no difference in complication rate between FG and sutures, the apparent advantages of FG over sutures are shorter surgical duration and greater reduction in the recurrence rate of pterygium.