Comparison of hemoglobin and hematocrit levels at 1, 4 and 24h after red blood cell transfusion
Transfusion and apheresis science : official journal of the World Apheresis Association : official journal of the European Society for Haemapheresis. 2019
Previous studies have shown that equilibration following a red cell transfusion had occurred by 24h. A shorter time to follow the hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) after transfusion may help physicians to provide earlier and more pertinent treatment. This was a prospective study conducted from December 2014 to August 2015. This research aimed to determine the equilibration time point of the level of Hb and Hct after one unit red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. Patients were randomized into three groups and Hb level and Hct were assessed at one, four or 24h after transfusion. The mean differences in Hb level and Hct before and after transfusion were compared between each group. Sixty patients were eligible for enrollment onto this study; 20 patients were therefore allocated to each group. The median age was 51 years old, male predominating (83.33%). The most common indication for transfusion was post-operative anemia (88.33%). There were no significant differences between the baseline characteristics baseline Hb, Hct and volume of RBC transfusion in each group. The mean differences in Hb (g/dl)/Hct (%) level at the different time points of one, four and 24h were 1.21/3.62, 1.19/3.63, and 0.95/3.09 respectively (P=0.109 and P=0.398, respectively). The equilibration of Hb and Hct did not differ between one, four and 24h after a RBC transfusion. The target Hb and Hct can be determined at one hour after transfusion.
Risk of venous and arterial thrombosis in non-surgical patients receiving systemic tranexamic acid: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Thrombosis research. 2019;179:81-86
BACKGROUND Antifibrinolytic agents such as tranexamic acid (TXA) are commonly used as adjunctive therapies to prevent and treat excessive bleeding. In non-surgical settings, TXA is known to reduce bleeding related mortality. However, impact of TXA use on thrombosis is uncertain. METHODS We systematically searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL databases from January 1985 to August 2018. Studies with the following characteristics were included: (i) RCT design; (ii) compared systemic (oral or intravenous) TXA for prevention or treatment of bleeding for non-surgical indications and placebo or no TXA, and (iii) reported thrombotic events or mortality. A Mantel-Haenzel, random-effects model was used to calculate risk ratios, and risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. RESULTS Our search identified 22 studies representing 49,538 patients. Those receiving TXA had a significantly lower risk of death from any cause (RR=0.92; 95% CI=0.87-0.98; I(2)=0%). There was no significant increase in the risk of stroke (RR=1.10; 95% CI=0.68-1.78; I(2)=31%), myocardial infarction (RR=0.88; 95% CI=0.43-1.84; I(2)=46%), pulmonary embolism (RR=0.97; 95% CI=0.75-1.26; I(2)=0%), or deep vein thrombosis (RR=0.99; 95% CI=0.70-1.41; I(2)=0%) from use of TXA. The results were similar when restricted to studies at low risk of bias. CONCLUSIONS In our systematic review and meta-analysis, the use of tranexamic acid reduced all-cause mortality without increased risk of venous or arterial thrombotic complications.
Mortality outcomes in patients transfused with fresher versus older red blood cells: a meta-analysis
Vox Sanguinis. 2017;112((3):):268-278
BACKGROUND Among transfused patients, the effect of the duration of red blood cell storage on mortality remains unclear. This study aims to compare the mortality of patients who were transfused with fresher versus older red blood cells. METHODS We performed an updated systematic search in the CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL databases, from January 2015 to October 2016. RCTs of hospitalized patients of any age comparing transfusion of fresher versus older red blood cells were eligible. We used a random-effects model to calculate pooled risk ratios (RRs) with corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS We identified 14 randomized trials that enrolled 26 374 participants. All-cause mortality occurred in 1219 of 9531 (12.8%) patients who received a transfusion of fresher red blood cells and 1810 of 16 843 (10.7%) in those who received older red blood cells (RR: 1.04, 95% CI: 0.98-1.12, P = 0.90, I2 = 0%, high certainty for ruling out benefit of fresh blood, moderate certainty for ruling out harm of fresh blood). In six studies, in-hospital death occurred in 691 of 7479 (9.2%) patients receiving fresher red cells and 1291 of 14 757 (8.8%) receiving older red cells (RR: 1.06, 95% CI: 0.97-1.15, P = 0.81, I2 = 0%, high certainty for ruling out benefit of fresh blood, moderate certainty for ruling out harm of fresh blood). CONCLUSION Transfusion of fresher red blood cells does not reduce overall or in-hospital mortality when compared with older red blood cells. Our results support the practice of transfusing patients with the oldest red blood cells available in the blood bank.
Prothrombin complex concentrates versus fresh frozen plasma for warfarin reversal. A systematic review and meta-analysis
Thrombosis and Haemostasis. 2016;116((4))
Urgent reversal of warfarin is required for patients who experience major bleeding or require urgent surgery. Treatment options include the combination of vitamin K and coagulation factor replacement with either prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) or fresh frozen plasma (FFP). However, the optimal reversal strategy is unclear based on clinically relevant outcomes. We searched in MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane library to December 2015. Thirteen studies (5 randomised studies and 8 observational studies) were included. PCC use was associated with a significant reduction in all-cause mortality compared to FFP (OR= 0.56, 95 % CI; 0.37-0.84, p=0.006). A higher proportion of patients receiving PCC achieved haemostasis compared to those receiving FFP, but this was not statistically significant (OR 2.00, 95 % CI; 0.85-4.68). PCC use was more likely to achieve normalisation of international normalised ratio (INR) (OR 10.80, 95 % CI; 6.12-19.07) and resulted in a shorter time to INR correction (mean difference -6.50 hours, 95 %CI; -9.75 to -3.24). Red blood cell transfusion was not statistically different between the two groups (OR 0.88, 95 % CI: 0.53-1.43). Patients receiving PCC had a lower risk of post-transfusion volume overload compared to FFP (OR 0.27, 95 % CI; 0.13-0.58). There was no statistically significant difference in the risk of thromboembolism following administration of PCC or FFP (OR 0.91, 95 % CI; 0.44-1.89). In conclusion, as compared to FFP, the use of PCC for warfarin reversal was associated with a significant reduction in all-cause mortality, more rapid INR reduction, and less volume overload without an increased risk of thromboembolic events.