Efficacy, safety and bioequivalence of the human-derived B-domain-deleted recombinant factor VIII TQG202 for prophylaxis in severe haemophilia A patients
Xi Y, Jin C, Liu W, Zhou H, Wang Z, Zhou R, Lou S, Zhao X, Chen F, Cheng P, et al
Haemophilia : the official journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia. 2022
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INTRODUCTION Current treatment of severe haemophilia A includes prophylaxis with factor VIII (FVIII) replacement. The supply of plasma-derived FVIII is short in China. PURPOSE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a new B-domain deleted (BDD) recombinant FVIII (TQG202) produced by human-derived cells for prophylaxis in severe haemophilia A patients and compare the bioequivalence with Xyntha. METHODS This multicentre, clinical trial consisted of an open-label, randomized, two-period cross-over trial assessing single-dose pharmacokinetics (PK), and a single-arm clinical trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of 24 weeks of TQG202 prophylaxis, and repeated PK were assessed after prophylaxis phase. The single-dose was 50 IU/kg in PK assessment, and the initial dose was 30 ± 5 IU/kg for prophylaxis. The primary endpoints of prophylaxis were the annualized bleeding rate (ABR) and the incremental recovery rate of the first administration. Adverse events (AEs) were recorded. RESULTS Twenty-six participants were enrolled in the PK assessment and 81 participants in the prophylaxis phase. Mean age was 25.9 ± 10.8 years and all participants were male. The results of PK assessment showed TQG202 is bioequivalent to Xyntha. The total ABR was 2.0 (95% CI: 1.2-2.9) in prophylaxis phase. The mean incremental recovery rate of the first administration was .027 (95% CI: .026-.028) (IU/ml)/(IU/kg). AEs occurred in 42 participants, with an incidence of 51.9%. One severe AE not related to TQG202 occurred. No participants developed FVIII inhibitors. CONCLUSION TQG202 shows bioequivalence with Xyntha. The promising efficacy and tolerability in the severe haemophilia A prophylaxis support the use of TQG202in clinical practice.
Prothrombin complex concentrates and andexanet for management of direct factor Xa inhibitor related bleeding: a meta-analysis
Luo C, Chen F, Chen YH, Zhao CF, Feng CZ, Liu HX, Luo DZQ
European review for medical and pharmacological sciences. 2021;25(6):2637-2653
There are potential concerns related to bleeding caused by oral anticoagulants, especially in the elderly. Andexanet alfa has been authorized for use to reverse the effects of oral anticoagulants. Off-label use of four factor prothrombin complex concentrate (4F-PCC) for the reversal of oral factor Xa inhibitors is common. However, not much is known about their efficacy and safety profile. The intent of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 4F-PCC and andexanet alfa for management of major bleeding due to oral factor Xa inhibitors. Comprehensive searches were done systematically through PubMed, Scopus and Google scholar databases. Studies that were retrospective record based or adopted prospective cohort approach and reported either of the three main outcomes, i.e., achieved hemostasis rate or rate of thrombotic events or mortality rate were included in the meta-analysis. Statistical analyses were done using STATA version 13.0. A total of 22 studies were included in the meta-analysis. All the studies had a single arm with no control/comparator group. The pooled rate of good to excellent hemostatic control upon use of andexanet was 80% (95% CI; 72% to 88%) and for 4F-PCC, it was 76% (95% CI; 70% to 83%). A comparatively higher pooled rate of thrombotic complications upon use of andexanet [13% (95% CI; 5% to 20%) was noted, compared to use of aPCC/4F-PCC [4% (95% CI; 3% to 5%). The pooled all-cause mortality rate within 30 days of administration was 24% (95% CI; 12% to 35%) with andexanet use and 19% (95% CI; 14% to 25%) for aPCC/4F-PCC. The findings suggest that use of both andexanet and aPCC/4F-PCC achieves a good hemostasis but there is an associated risk of thrombotic events and mortality. Future studies should have a control group to better establish evidence on efficacy and safety of these agents.
A prognostic score for patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure treated with plasma exchange-centered artificial liver support system
Du L, Ma Y, Zhou S, Chen F, Xu Y, Wang M, Lei X, Feng P, Tang H, Bai L
Scientific reports. 2021;11(1):1469
Artificial liver support system (ALSS) therapy is widely used in patients with hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF). We aimed to develop a predictive score to identify the subgroups who may benefit from plasma exchange (PE)-centered ALSS therapy. A total of 601 patients were retrospectively enrolled and randomly divided into a derivation cohort of 303 patients and a validation cohort of 298 patients for logistic regression analysis, respectively. Five baseline variables, including liver cirrhosis, total bilirubin, international normalized ratio of prothrombin time, infection and hepatic encephalopathy, were found independently associated with 3-month mortality. A predictive PALS model and the simplified PALS score were developed. The predicative value of PALS score (AUROC = 0.818) to 3-month prognosis was as capable as PALS model (AUROC = 0.839), R score (AUROC = 0.824) and Yue-Meng' score (AUROC = 0.810) (all p > 0.05), and superior to CART model (AUROC = 0.760) and MELD score (AUROC = 0.765) (all p < 0.05). The PALS score had significant linear correlation with 3-month mortality (R(2) = 0.970, p = 0.000). PALS score of 0-2 had both sensitivity and negative predictive value of > 90% for 3-month mortality, while PALS score of 6-9 had both specificity and positive predictive value of > 90%. Patients with PALS score of 3-5 who received 3-5 sessions of ALSS therapy had much lower 3-month mortality than those who received 1-2 sessions (32.8% vs. 59.2%, p < 0.05). The more severe patients with PALS score of 6-9 could still benefit from ≥ 6 sessions of ALSS therapy compared to ≤ 2 sessions (63.6% vs. 97.0%, p < 0.05). The PALS score could predict prognosis reliably and conveniently. It could identify the subgroups who could benefit from PE-centered ALSS therapy, and suggest the reasonable sessions.Trial registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR2000032055. Registered 19th April 2020, http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=52471 .
Effects of emergency treatment mode of damage-control orthopedics in pelvic fracture complicated with multiple fractures
Fan H, Fei R, Guo C, Li Y, Yan C, Chen F, Zhang Y
American journal of translational research. 2021;13(6):6817-6826
OBJECTIVE This study aimed to observe the application effect of emergency treatment mode of damage-control orthopedics (DCO) in pelvic fracture complicated with multiple fractures. METHODS Ninety-four patients with pelvic fracture complicated with multiple fractures in our hospital were recruited and divided into two groups according to the random number table method, with 47 cases in each group. Patients in the control group received traditional methods for emergency treatment (early complete treatment), and patients in the research group received DCO for emergency treatment (treatment performed in stages according to patient's physiological tolerance, with simplified initial surgery, followed by ICU resuscitation, and finally definitive surgery). The two groups were compared in terms of mortality, the incidence of acidosis and hypothermia three days after the first surgery, surgery-related indexes (time of the first surgery, blood transfusion volume, intraoperative blood loss, recovery time of temperature, and length of hospital stay), coagulation function indexes (activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT) and fibrinogen (FIB)), postoperative reduction of fracture, complication rate, and quality of life. RESULTS The incidences of acidosis, hypothermia, and mortality three days after the first surgery in the research group were lower than those in the control group (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the research group experienced shorter time of the first surgery, less intraoperative blood transfusion volume, less intraoperative blood loss, shorter recovery time of body temperature, and shorter length of hospital stay (P<0.05). Seven days after surgery, PT, TT and APTT decreased and FIB increased in both groups (P<0.05), PT, TT and APTT in the research group were lower than those in the control group (P<0.05), while FIB was higher (P<0.05). The good rate of reduction in the research group was higher than that in the control group (P=0.025). The incidence of complications in the research group was lower than that in the control group (P=0.049). Six months after surgery, the scores of physiological function (PF), body pain (BP), role physical (RP), emotional function (EF), social function (SF), vitality, and general health (GH) of the research group were higher than those of the control group (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference in mental health (MH) between the two groups (P>0.05). CONCLUSION The emergency treatment mode of DCO is effective in pelvic fracture complicated with multiple fractures, which can effectively improve postoperative reduction of patients, improve the coagulation function, reduce complications, and improve the quality of life.
Methylprednisolone Pulse Therapy or Additional IVIG for Patients with IVIG-Resistant Kawasaki Disease
Wang Z, Chen F, Wang Y, Li W, Xie X, Liu P, Zhang X, Zhang L, Huang P
Journal of immunology research. 2020;2020:4175821
There have been no robust data from clinical trials to guide the clinician in the choice of therapeutic agents for the child with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) resistance. The treatment regimen for IVIG-resistant patients varies between institutions, and the best option has not yet been established. Therefore, in this trial, a total of 955 patients with Kawasaki disease (KD) were selected and were initially treated with IVIG (2 g/kg), of whom 80 (8.38%) assessed as IVIG resistant were randomly divided into two groups: Group A received the second IVIG treatment (n = 40), and Group B received methylprednisolone pulse therapy (MPT, n = 40). The whole fever time, duration of fever after retreatment, hospital days, medical costs, readmission rate, and laboratory examination difference (△) were calculated. Coronary artery lesion (CAL) outcomes were followed up over two years. Patients in the MPT group had shorter fever after retreatment and lower medical costs; more rapid declines in C-reactive protein (CRP), neutrophils (N%), and platelet (PLT) levels; and more rapid rise in sodium. However, they also probably had a higher incidence of treatment failure and CALs than the additional IVIG treatment group in the long-term follow-up. Caution is still required in the use of MPT to treat IVIG-resistant KD.
Efficacy and toxicities of low-temperature plasma radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of laryngomalacia in neonates and infants: a prospective randomized controlled trial
Xu H, Chen F, Zheng Y, Li X
Annals of translational medicine. 2020;8(21):1366
BACKGROUND Laryngomalacia is the most common cause of stridor in neonates and infants, and supraglottoplasty is the mainstay of surgical treatment. Although low-temperature plasma radiofrequency ablation (LTP-RFA) using coblation technology has been used for treating laryngomalacia, it is still lack of high-quality clinical evidence. Therefore, we conduct this prospective randomized study to clearly define the role of LTP-RFA for the treatment of laryngomalacia in neonates and infants. METHODS Between Jan 2017 and Dec 2019, a total of 89 children with laryngomalacia were included for analysis. All patients were initially stratified according to the severity of laryngomalacia. Patients with severe laryngomalacia were randomly assigned to receive LTP-RFA or traditionally surgical supraglottoplasty, while patients with moderate laryngomalacia were assigned to LTP-RFA or observation. The primary end point was the efficacy and toxicities of LTP-RFA by assessing the changes of clinical score and visual analogue scale (VAS) symptom score. The total score was the combination of clinical score with VAS score. RESULTS Of the 89 children, 40 children presented with severe laryngomalacia, and the remaining 49 children were diagnosed as moderate laryngomalacia. The median age was 68 days (range, 19 to 337 days). For children with severe laryngomalacia, our results showed that LTP-RFA treatment significantly reduced the operative time (5.55±1.66 vs. 18.7±5.31 min, P<0.001), length of hospital stay (6.71±1.15 vs. 7.95±1.55 days, P=0.008) and the amount of intraoperative hemorrhage (1.71±1.79 vs. 4.90±1.82, P<0.001) when compared to traditionally surgical supraglottoplasty, while the treatment efficacy was comparable between LTP-RFA and traditionally surgical supraglottoplasty in terms of changed total score (P=0.322), changed clinical score (P=0.135) and changed VAS symptom score (P=0.559). Additionally, for children with moderate laryngomalacia, LTP-RFA treatment significantly improved the symptom evaluated by total score (P<0.001), clinical score (P<0.001) and VAS symptom score (P<0.001) in comparison with the observation group. Post-operative pneumonia was observed in 10 patients. No surgical related death was reported. CONCLUSIONS The present study indicated that LTP-RFA was an effective treatment option for both severe and moderate laryngomalacia in neonates and infants with a low intraoperative complication. Long-term outcomes of LTP-RFA for laryngomalacia would be reported in further studies.
Efficacy and safety of perioperative tranexamic acid in elderly patients undergoing trochanteric fracture surgery: a randomised controlled trial
Chen F, Jiang Z, Li M, Zhu X
Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi. 2019
INTRODUCTION Trochanteric fractures result in a high frequency of considerable blood loss, a high incidence of blood transfusions, and a high risk of perioperative morbidity and mortality in elderly patients. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a three-dose regimen of tranexamic acid on blood loss and transfusion rate in elderly patients with trochanteric fractures. METHODS Eligible patients with trochanteric fractures surgically treated by dynamic hip screw and proximal anti-rotating intramedullary nail between March 2016 and October 2017 were enrolled in the study. Patients were randomly assigned to receive 15 mg/kg intravenous tranexamic acid dissolved in 100 mL of saline (TXA group) or 100 mL of saline solution (placebo group) over 10 minutes before, during, and after surgery. Perioperative blood loss, obvious blood loss, and hidden blood loss in the two groups were calculated separately. Vascular events and patient mortality over 6 months' follow-up were noted. RESULTS In total, 176 patients were included. Compared with the placebo group (n=88), patients in the TXA group (n=88) had less blood loss: perioperative blood loss was 205.5 mL (P<0.001), obvious blood loss was 125 mL (P<0.001), and hidden blood loss was 76.5 mL (P<0.001); reduced incidence of blood transfusion (17% vs 35%, P=0.007); and shorter hospital stays (median [interquartile range], 7 [6-8] vs 8.5 [7.5-9] days, P<0.001). CONCLUSION Tranexamic acid significantly lowered perioperative blood loss and blood transfusion rate without an increased risk of venous thromboembolism or mortality in elderly patients with trochanteric fractures treated with dynamic hip screw or proximal anti-rotating intramedullary nail.
Minimally invasive surgery is superior to conventional craniotomy in patients with spontaneous supratentorial Intracerebral hemorrhage:a systematic review and meta-analysis
Xia Z, Wu X, Li J, Liu Z, Chen F, Zhang L, Zhang H, Wan X, Cheng Q
World Neurosurgery. 2018;115:266-273
BACKGROUND Outcomes of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) versus conventional craniotomy (CC) for patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage(SICH) have not been previously compared. We reviewed the current evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of MIS as compared with conventional craniotomy, in patients with SICH. METHODS We conducted a meta-analysis of studies that comparing MIS and CC in patients with computed tomography confirmed SICH, published from January 2000 to April 2018 in Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (CCTR) based on PRISMA inclusion and exclusion criteria. Binary outcomes comparisons between MIS and CC were described using odds ratios (ORs). RESULTS Five randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and nine prospective controlled studies (non-RCTs) met the included criteria, involving 2466 patients. There was statistically significant difference in mortality rates between MIS and CC (OR, 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60-0.97). MIS associated with lower rates of complications in rebleeding (OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.28-0.64), and higher rates of good recovery compared with CC (OR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.34-3.83). CONCLUSIONS Patients with SICH may benefit more from MIS than CC. Our study could help clinicians to optimize treatment strategies in SICH.
Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in adult patients with polymyositis/dermatomyositis: a systematic literature review
Wang DX, Shu XM, Tian XL, Chen F, Zu N, Ma L, Wang GC
Clinical Rheumatology. 2012;31((5):):801-6.
The objectives of this study are to review and summarize published information on the use, effectiveness, and adverse effects of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in patients with polymyositis (PM) or dermatomyositis (DM) and to search MEDLINE and CNKI (Chinese) databases from 1985 to 2011 to retrieve clinical research articles concerning IVIG in adult patients with PM/DM. Of the 14 articles selected, two were randomized controlled trials, nine prospective open studies, and three retrospective studies with a total of 308 adult patients. IVIG has been used successfully in the treatment of PM/DM. The standard dose is 2 g/kg, given in two to five individual daily doses. The course of IVIG treatment is usually 3~6 months. IVIG therapy seemed rarely employed as first-line therapy in PM/DM. In a double-blind study conducted in patients with refractory DM, IVIG combined with corticosteroid significantly improved muscle strength and decreased serum creatine kinase level, compared with placebo. The beneficial effect of IVIG in refractory, flare-up, rapidly progressive, or severe PM/DM has been documented in many open-label trials. IVIG was shown to be effective in most of PM/DM patients with lung involvement and esophageal involvement. In some patients, IVIG can lower the corticosteroid dose required for maintenance, demonstrating the most effective steroid-sparing effect. Adverse effects were generally tolerable. IVIG is effective in the treatment of adult patients with PM/DM and appears to be relatively well tolerated and safe. IVIG may be a good choice especially in patients with refractory, flare-up, rapidly progressive, or severe PM/DM, and can be tried in patients with a contraindication for corticosteroid.
The effect of tranexamic acid on blood loss and use of blood products in total knee arthroplasty: a meta-analysis
Zhang H, Chen J, Chen F, Que W
Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy. 2012;20((9):):1742-52.
PURPOSE Studies have shown that tranexamic acid (TXA) reduces blood loss and transfusion need in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, no single study has been large enough to definitively determine whether the drug is safe and effective. We report a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials evaluating the efficacy and safety of TXA in reducing blood loss and transfusion in TKA. METHODS A comprehensive literature search was done in Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CNKI. Two reviewers independently identified the eligible studies, assessed their methodological quality, and extracted data. The data were evaluated using the generic evaluation tool designed by the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group. The relevant data were analyzed using RevMan 5.0. RESULTS Fifteen randomized controlled trials involving 842 patients were included. The use of TXA reduced total blood loss by a mean of 487ml [95% confidence interval (CI) -629 to -344], intra-operative blood loss by a mean of 127ml (95% CI -313-59), and post-operative blood loss by a mean of 245ml (95% CI -410 to -80). TXA led to a significant reduction in the proportion of patients requiring blood transfusion (risk difference -0.4). There were no significant differences in deep-vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism, or other complications among the study groups. CONCLUSION Meta-analysis indicates that TXA may reduce post-operative, total blood loss and transfusion in patients undergoing TKA. TXA led to a significant reduction in the proportion of patients requiring blood transfusion. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Therapeutic study (Systematic review of Level I studies with inconsistent results), Level II.