Efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid in elderly patients with femoral neck fracture treated with hip arthroplasty: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Zhao YK, Zhang C, Zhang YW, Li RY, Xie T, Bai LY, Chen H, Rui YF
Journal of orthopaedic science : official journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association. 2023
BACKGROUND Elderly patients with femoral neck fracture have high perioperative blood loss according to the trauma and hip arthroplasty surgery. Tranexamic acid is a fibrinolytic inhibitor and has been widely used in hip fracture patients to against perioperative anemia. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Tranexamic acid (TXA) in elderly patients with femoral neck fracture undergoing hip arthroplasty. METHODS We performed search using Pubmed, EMBASE, Cochrane Reviews, and Web of Science databases to identify all relevant research studies published from inception to June 2022. Randomized controlled studies and high-quality cohort studies that reported the perioperative use of TXA in patients with femoral neck fractures treated with arthroplasty, and made a comparison with the control group were included. Meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager 5.3 to assess the efficacy and safety of TXA. Subgroup analysis was conducted to further investigate the impact caused by surgery types and administration routes on the efficacy and safety outcomes. RESULTS Five randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and eight cohort studies published from January 2015 to June 2022 were included in this meta-analysis. The results showed significant reductions in the rate of allogeneic blood transfusion, total blood loss (TBL) and postoperative hemoglobin (Hb) drop in the TXA group compared with the control group, while no significant difference was found in the intraoperative blood loss, postoperative drainage, hospital length of stay (LOS), re-admission rate, and wound complications between the two groups. The incidence of thromboembolic events and mortality showed no significant difference. Subgroup analysis indicated that surgery types and administration routes did not change the overall tendency. CONCLUSION The current evidence shows that both intravascular administration (IV) and topical administration of TXA can significantly decrease the perioperative transfusion rate and TBL without increasing the risk of thromboembolic complications in elderly patients with femoral neck fracture.
The Therapeutic Efficacy and Safety of Intravenous Immunoglobulin in Dermatomyositis and Polymyositis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Xiong A, Qiang Y, Cao Y, Shuai Y, Chen H, Xiang Q, Hu Z, Song Z, Zhou S, Zhang Y, et al
Modern rheumatology. 2022
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in the treatment of dermatomyositis (DM) and polymyositis (PM). METHODS A comprehensive systematic review was conducted in accordance with the guidelines of PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews And Meta-analyses). PubMed, Embase, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were searched to find articles published between July 1919 and May 2021 concerning IVIG therapy in PM/DM. We analyzed continuum data through mean difference and the estimated pooled improvement rate through Log transformation. We calculated all the effect measures with a 95% confidence interval. The I²statistic was calculated to assess statistical heterogeneity across the studies. I²values of 25%, 50% and 75% were defined as low, moderate and high, respectively. All analyses were conducted using R Studio, Version 3.6.3. RESULTS Seventeen papers pertinent to our questions were found: three case-control studies, fourteen non-randomized studies. We evaluated the efficacy of IVIG in DM/PM by the indicators of creatine kinase (CK), Manual Muscle Test (MMT) scores, Medical Research Council (MRC) scale, the Activities of Daily Living (ADL) scale and the pooled improvement rate. In a meta-analysis, we found that IVIG significantly improved the level of CK (SMD -0.69, 95%CI -0.93, -0.46; P<0.0001), MMT (SMD 1.12; 95%CI 0.77, 1.47; P<0.00001), MRC (SMD 1.59; 95%CI 0.86, 2.33; P<0.00001), ADL (SMD 1.07; 95%CI 0.59, 1.56; P<0.0001). The CK levels in DM and PM were also significantly improved after IVIG (SMD = -0.73, 95%CI -1.12, -0.34; P=0.0002; and SMD = -3.29, 95%CI -5.82, -0.76; P < 0.0001, respectively). The meta-analysis of three RCTs showed that there was a statistically significant improvement after IVIG (SMD 0.63; 95%CI 0.22, 1.03; P=0.002). In a random effects model pooled muscle power improvement rate was 77% (95% CI: 66.0-87.0%). Meta-analyses of IVIG as first-line therapy showed a significant improvement of CK level (SMD -0.71; 95%CI -1.12, -0.30; P=0.0007). In three studies, the polled improvement rate of esophageal disorders was 88% (95% CI: 80.0-95.0%). There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of improvement between the number of courses < 2 and ≥ 2 (0.80 vs. 0.80 %, P = 0.9). The corticosteroid-sparing effect of IVIG was also well demonstrated, with the proportion of corticosteroid-sparing success reaching 81.8% (72/88). Adverse reactions included headache, fever, Hypotension and dizzy and so on. Mild cortical stroke, staphylococcal septicaemia, asymptomatic myocardial infarction, cerebral infarction, deep vein thrombosis and subendocardial ischemia as severe adverse events were found in seven cases. CONCLUSION IVIG seems to be an effective drug for DM\PM, improving muscle strength, CK levels and esophageal involvement, and it is well tolerated by patients.
The addition of oral iron improves chemotherapy-induced anemia in patients receiving erythropoiesis-stimulating agents
Tan J, Du S, Zang X, Ding K, Ginzburg Y, Chen H
International journal of cancer. 2022
Although many studies have shown that supplementation with iron and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) is frequently used for managing chemotherapy-induced anemia (CIA), optimal combination therapy using these agents together to ameliorate anemia is not well characterized. To assess the effects of ESA combined with oral or intravenous (IV) iron on relieving CIA, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were searched for articles. Data collected in the articles were meta-analyzed using RevMan 5.3 software with a random-effects model. Our comprehensive search yielded 1666 potentially relevant trials. A total of 41 trials randomizing 4200 patients with CIA fulfilled inclusion criteria, including 34 Chinese articles and 7 English articles. Meta-analysis showed that treatment with both ESA and iron more effectively improved CIA relative to iron supplementation alone, with increased hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cell count and haematopoietic response rate. Subgroup analyses revealed iron administration, both oral and IV iron, improved anemia in ESA-treated cancer patients with CIA. Our analysis demonstrates that iron supplementation combined with ESA more effectively ameliorates CIA relative to iron supplementation alone, without regard to whether IV or oral iron was used. Together, our findings may contribute to the clinical treatment of CIA using iron therapy with or without ESA. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Identification of Parameters Representative of Immune Dysfunction in Patients with Severe and Fatal COVID-19 Infection: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Qin R, He L, Yang Z, Jia N, Chen R, Xie J, Fu W, Chen H, Lin X, Huang R, et al
Clinical reviews in allergy & immunology. 2022;:1-33
Abnormal immunological indicators associated with disease severity and mortality in patients with COVID-19 have been reported in several observational studies. However, there are marked heterogeneities in patient characteristics and research methodologies in these studies. We aimed to provide an updated synthesis of the association between immune-related indicators and COVID-19 prognosis. We conducted an electronic search of PubMed, Scopus, Ovid, Willey, Web of Science, Cochrane library, and CNKI for studies reporting immunological and/or immune-related parameters, including hematological, inflammatory, coagulation, and biochemical variables, tested on hospital admission of COVID-19 patients with different severities and outcomes. A total of 145 studies were included in the current meta-analysis, with 26 immunological, 11 hematological, 5 inflammatory, 4 coagulation, and 10 biochemical variables reported. Of them, levels of cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-2R, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IgA, IgG, and CD4(+) T/CD8(+) T cell ratio, WBC, neutrophil, platelet, ESR, CRP, ferritin, SAA, D-dimer, FIB, and LDH were significantly increased in severely ill patients or non-survivors. Moreover, non-severely ill patients or survivors presented significantly higher counts of lymphocytes, monocytes, lymphocyte/monocyte ratio, eosinophils, CD3(+) T,CD4(+)T and CD8(+)T cells, B cells, and NK cells. The currently updated meta-analysis primarily identified a hypercytokinemia profile with the severity and mortality of COVID-19 containing IL-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-2R, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, TNF-α, and IFN-γ. Impaired innate and adaptive immune responses, reflected by decreased eosinophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, B cells, NK cells, T cells, and their subtype CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, and augmented inflammation, coagulation dysfunction, and nonpulmonary organ injury, were marked features of patients with poor prognosis. Therefore, parameters of immune response dysfunction combined with inflammatory, coagulated, or nonpulmonary organ injury indicators may be more sensitive to predict severe patients and those non-survivors.
Efficacy and safety of recanalization therapy for acute ischemic stroke with COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Wang Z, Teng H, Wu X, Yang X, Qiu Y, Chen H, Chen Z, Wang Z, Chen G
Frontiers in neurology. 2022;13:984135
BACKGROUND The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly spread worldwide and created a tremendous threat to global health. Growing evidence suggests that patients with COVID-19 have more severe acute ischemic stroke (AIS). However, the overall efficacy and safety of recanalization therapy for AIS patients infected by the SARS-CoV-2 virus is unknown. METHODS The PRISMA guideline 2020 was followed. Two independent investigators systematically searched databases and ClinicalTrials.gov to identify relevant studies published up to 31 March 2022. AIS patients who received any recanalization treatments were categorized into those with COVID-19 and those without COVID-19. The main efficacy outcomes were patients' functional independence on discharge and successful recanalization, and the safety outcomes were in-hospital mortality and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage. Subgroup analyses were implemented to assess the influence of admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and different recanalization treatments on the outcomes. STATA software 12.0 was used for the statistical analysis. RESULTS This systematic review and meta-analysis identified 10 studies with 7,042 patients, including 596 COVID-19 positive patients and 6,446 COVID-19 negative patients. Of the total patients, 2,414 received intravenous thrombolysis while 4,628 underwent endovascular thrombectomy. COVID-19 positive patients had significantly lower rates of functional independence at discharge [odds ratio (OR) 0.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15 to 0.59, P = 0.001], lower rates of successful recanalization (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.68, P = 0.001), longer length of hospital stay (weighted mean difference 5.09, 95% CI 1.25 to 8.94, P = 0.009) and higher mortality rates (OR 3.38, 95% CI 2.43 to 4.70, P < 0.0001). Patients with COVID-19 had a higher risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage than the control group, although the difference did not reach statistical significance (OR 2.34, 95% CI 0.99 to 5.54, P = 0.053). CONCLUSIONS Compared with COVID-19 negative AIS patients who received recanalization treatments, COVID-19 positive patients turned out to have poorer outcomes. Particular attention needs to be paid to the treatments for these COVID-19 patients to decrease mortality and morbidity. Long-term follow-up is necessary to evaluate the recanalization treatments for AIS patients with COVID-19. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION https://inplasy.com/inplasy-2022-4-0022/, identifier: INPLASY202240022.
Effectiveness and tolerability of different therapies in preventive treatment of MOG-IgG-associated disorder: A network meta-analysis
Wang X, Kong L, Zhao Z, Shi Z, Chen H, Lang Y, Lin X, Du Q, Zhou H
Frontiers in immunology. 2022;13:953993
BACKGROUND Immunotherapy has been shown to reduce relapses in patients with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disorder (MOG-AD); however, the superiority of specific treatments remains unclear. AIM: To identify the efficacy and tolerability of different treatments for MOG-AD. METHODS Systematic search in Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases from inception to March 1, 2021, were performed. Published articles including patients with MOG-AD and reporting the efficacy or tolerability of two or more types of treatment in preventing relapses were included. Reported outcomes including incidence of relapse, annualized relapse rate (ARR), and side effects were extracted. Network meta-analysis with a random-effect model within a Bayesian framework was conducted. Between group comparisons were estimated using Odds ratio (OR) or mean difference (MD) with 95% credible intervals (CrI). RESULTS Twelve studies that compared the efficacy of 10 different treatments in preventing MOG-AD relapse, including 735 patients, were analyzed. In terms of incidence of relapse, intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG), oral corticosteroids (OC), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), azathioprine (AZA), and rituximab (RTX) were all significantly more effective than no treatment (ORs ranged from 0.075 to 0.34). On the contrary, disease-modifying therapy (DMT) (OR=1.3, 95% CrI: 0.31 to 5.0) and tacrolimus (TAC) (OR=5.9, 95% CrI: 0.19 to 310) would increase the incidence of relapse. Compared with DMT, IVIG significantly reduced the ARR (MD=-0.85, 95% CrI: -1.7 to -0.098). AZA, MMF, OC and RTX showed a trend to decrease ARR, but those results did not reach significant differences. The combined results for relapse rate and adverse events, as well as ARR and adverse events showed that IVIG and OC were the most effective and tolerable therapies. CONCLUSIONS Whilst DMT should be avoided, IVIG and OC may be suited as first-line therapies for patients with MOG-AD. RTX, MMF, and AZA present suitable alternatives.
Early Lactate-Guided Resuscitation of Elderly Septic Patients
Chen H, Xu J, Wang X, Wang Y, Tong F
Journal of intensive care medicine. 2021;:8850666211023347
BACKGROUND Early lactate-guided resuscitation was endorsed in the guidelines of the Surviving Sepsis Campaign as a key strategy to decrease the mortality of patients admitted to the ICU department with septic shock. However, its effectiveness in elderly Asian patients is uncertain. METHOD We conducted a single-center trial to test the effectiveness of the early lactate-guided resuscitation of older Asian patients at the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University. Eligible septic shock patients who consented to participation in the study were randomly assigned to receive early lactate-guided treatment or regular treatment as controls. RESULT A total of 82 patients met the hyperlactatemia criteria and participated in the trial. Forty-two patients received early lactate-guided treatment (lactate group) and 40 received regular treatment (control group). The lactate group received more fluids at initial 6 hours (3.3 ± 1.4 vs 2.4 ± 1.7 L, P = 0.01), but similar proportions of patients in both groups required the use of vasopressors and vasodilators. Patients in the lactate group showed significantly reduced ICU needs compared to the control group, which were weaned from mechanical ventilation more quickly (median 7, IQR 4 to 14 vs median 9, IQR 4.3 to 17.8, P = 0.02) and transferred out of the ICU earlier (median 4.5, IQR 2.8 to 7.3 vs median 6, IQR 3.2 to 8, P = 0.01). However, the hospital mortality (35.7% vs 42.5%, P = 0.35) and ICU mortality (31.0% vs 37.5%, P = 0.38) for both groups were not reduced. CONCLUSION For critically ill patients (elderly Asian patients) admitted to the ICU department with hyperlactatemia, early lactate-guided treatment reduced ICU needs but did not reduce mortality.
Tranexamic acid for subarachnoid hemorrhage: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Feng Y, Chen H
The American journal of emergency medicine. 2021;50:748-752
BACKGROUND The efficacy of tranexamic acid for subarachnoid hemorrhage remains controversial. Thus, we conduct this meta-analysis to explore the efficacy of tranexamic acid for subarachnoid hemorrhage. METHODS PubMed, EMbase, Web of science, EBSCO, and Cochrane library databases were systematically searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of tranexamic acid on subarachnoid hemorrhage were included. Two investigators independently searched articles, extracted data, and assessed the quality of included studies. This meta-analysis was performed using the random-effect model. RESULTS Five RCTs and 2359 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, compared with control intervention for subarachnoid hemorrhage, tranexamic acid was associated with significantly reduced risk of rebleeding (Odd ratio [OR] =0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.41 to 0.93; P = 0.02), but had no influence on mortality (OR = 0.94; 95% CI = 0.75 to 1.18; P = 0.61), poor outcome (OR = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.61 to 1.48; P = 0.82), hydrocephalus (OR = 1.17; 95% CI = 0.94 to 1.46; P = 0.17) or delayed cerebral ischemia (OR = 1.26; 95% CI = 0.78 to 2.04; P = 0.34). CONCLUSIONS Tranexamic acid may be effective to reduce the risk of rebleeding in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Platelet Rich Plasma Versus Hyaluronic Acid in the Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis: a Meta-Analysis of 26 randomized controlled trials
Tan J, Chen H, Zhao L, Huang W
PURPOSE The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness and safety of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and hyaluronic acid (HA) in adult knee osteoarthritis (KOA) patients and to explore the most effective and safe protocol by using a meta-analysis method. METHODS This study was based on Cochrane methodology for conducting a meta-analysis. Only randomized controlled trials with an experimental group that used PRP and a control group that received HA were eligible for this study. The participants were adults who had KOA. The outcome measures were the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), the visual analog scale (VAS), the EuroQol visual analog scale (EQ-VAS), the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), the Tegner score, the Lequesne Scale, the Knee injury Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, satisfaction rate and adverse events. Subgroup analyses was performed for patients with different doses, types and times of PRP interventions and grades of OA. The Review Manager Database was used to analyze the included studies. RESULTS Twenty-six randomized controlled trials involving 2430 patients were included. The WOMAC total scores, WOMAC physical function scores and VAS scores of the PRP group were better than the those of the HA group at 3, 6 and 12 months. The PRP group had better WOMAC pain, WOMAC stiffness, EQ-VAS and IKDC scores than the HA group at 6 and 12 months. There was no significant difference in adverse events between the two groups (RR, 1.21 [95% CI, 0.95 to 1.54]; p = 0.13). CONCLUSIONS For the nonsurgical treatment of KOA, compared with HA, intra-articular injection of PRP could significantly reduce patients' early pain and improve function. There was no significant difference in adverse events between the two groups. PRP was more effective than HA in the treatment of KOA, and the safety of these two treatment options was comparable. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Level I, meta-analysis of Level I RCTs.
Comparison of cell salvage with one and two suction devices during cesarean section in patients with placenta previa and/or accrete: a randomized controlled trial
Chen H, Tan H, Luo PX, Shen YF, Lyu CC, Qian XW, Chen XZ
Chinese medical journal. 2020
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BACKGROUND Cell salvage has recently been recommended for obstetric use in cases with a high risk of massive hemorrhage during cesarean section (CS). However, limited data are available to support the use of one suction device to collect lost blood. This study aimed to investigate the volume of red blood cells (RBCs) salvaged and the components of amniotic fluid (AF) in blood salvaged by one suction device or two devices during CS in patients with placenta previa and/or accrete. METHODS Thirty patients with placenta previa and/or accrete undergoing elective CS in the Women's Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine were recruited for the present study from November 1, 2017 to December 1, 2018. The patients were randomly assigned to one of the two groups according to an Excel-generated random number sheet: Group 1 (n = 15), in which only one suction device was used to aspirate all blood and AF, and Group 2 (n = 15), in which a second suction device was mainly used to aspirate AF before the delivery of the placenta. Three samples of blood per patient (pre-wash, post-wash, and post-filtration) were collected to measure AF components. The salvaged RBC volumes were recorded. Continuous data of pre-wash, post-wash, and post-filtration samples were analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance with Tukey's test for multiple comparisons, or Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn test for multiple comparisons. Comparisons of continuous data between Group 1 and Group 2 were conducted using Student's t test or Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS The salvaged RBC volume was significantly higher in Group 1 than that in Group 2 (401.6 +/- 77.2 mL vs. 330.1 +/- 53.3 mL, t = 4.175, P < 0.001). In both groups, squamous cells, lamellar bodies, and fat were significantly reduced by washing (all P<0.001) and squamous cells were further reduced by filtering (P < 0.001). Squamous cells were found in six post-filtration samples (three from each group). Lamellar bodies and fat were completely removed by filtering. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1, alpha-fetoprotein, albumin, lactate dehydrogenase, and potassium were significantly reduced post-wash (all P < 0.05), with no further significant reduction after filtration in either group (all P > 0.05). The mean percentage of fetal RBCs post-filtration was (1.8 +/- 0.8)% with a range of 1.0% to 3.5% and (1.9 +/- 0.9)% with a range of 0.7% to 4.0% in Groups 1 and 2, respectively, showing no significant difference between the two groups (U = 188.5, P = 0.651). CONCLUSION Cell salvage performed by one suction device could result in higher volume of salvaged RBCs and can be used safely for CS in patients with placenta previa and/or accrete when massive hemorrhage occurs. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER ChiCTR-INR-17012926, http://www.chictr.org.cn/ Chinese Clinical Trial Registry.