Early Lactate-Guided Resuscitation of Elderly Septic Patients
Journal of intensive care medicine. 2021;:8850666211023347
BACKGROUND Early lactate-guided resuscitation was endorsed in the guidelines of the Surviving Sepsis Campaign as a key strategy to decrease the mortality of patients admitted to the ICU department with septic shock. However, its effectiveness in elderly Asian patients is uncertain. METHOD We conducted a single-center trial to test the effectiveness of the early lactate-guided resuscitation of older Asian patients at the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University. Eligible septic shock patients who consented to participation in the study were randomly assigned to receive early lactate-guided treatment or regular treatment as controls. RESULT A total of 82 patients met the hyperlactatemia criteria and participated in the trial. Forty-two patients received early lactate-guided treatment (lactate group) and 40 received regular treatment (control group). The lactate group received more fluids at initial 6 hours (3.3 ± 1.4 vs 2.4 ± 1.7 L, P = 0.01), but similar proportions of patients in both groups required the use of vasopressors and vasodilators. Patients in the lactate group showed significantly reduced ICU needs compared to the control group, which were weaned from mechanical ventilation more quickly (median 7, IQR 4 to 14 vs median 9, IQR 4.3 to 17.8, P = 0.02) and transferred out of the ICU earlier (median 4.5, IQR 2.8 to 7.3 vs median 6, IQR 3.2 to 8, P = 0.01). However, the hospital mortality (35.7% vs 42.5%, P = 0.35) and ICU mortality (31.0% vs 37.5%, P = 0.38) for both groups were not reduced. CONCLUSION For critically ill patients (elderly Asian patients) admitted to the ICU department with hyperlactatemia, early lactate-guided treatment reduced ICU needs but did not reduce mortality.
Platelet Rich Plasma Versus Hyaluronic Acid in the Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis: a Meta-Analysis of 26 randomized controlled trials
PURPOSE The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness and safety of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and hyaluronic acid (HA) in adult knee osteoarthritis (KOA) patients and to explore the most effective and safe protocol by using a meta-analysis method. METHODS This study was based on Cochrane methodology for conducting a meta-analysis. Only randomized controlled trials with an experimental group that used PRP and a control group that received HA were eligible for this study. The participants were adults who had KOA. The outcome measures were the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), the visual analog scale (VAS), the EuroQol visual analog scale (EQ-VAS), the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), the Tegner score, the Lequesne Scale, the Knee injury Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, satisfaction rate and adverse events. Subgroup analyses was performed for patients with different doses, types and times of PRP interventions and grades of OA. The Review Manager Database was used to analyze the included studies. RESULTS Twenty-six randomized controlled trials involving 2430 patients were included. The WOMAC total scores, WOMAC physical function scores and VAS scores of the PRP group were better than the those of the HA group at 3, 6 and 12 months. The PRP group had better WOMAC pain, WOMAC stiffness, EQ-VAS and IKDC scores than the HA group at 6 and 12 months. There was no significant difference in adverse events between the two groups (RR, 1.21 [95% CI, 0.95 to 1.54]; p = 0.13). CONCLUSIONS For the nonsurgical treatment of KOA, compared with HA, intra-articular injection of PRP could significantly reduce patients' early pain and improve function. There was no significant difference in adverse events between the two groups. PRP was more effective than HA in the treatment of KOA, and the safety of these two treatment options was comparable. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Level I, meta-analysis of Level I RCTs.
Comparison of cell salvage with one and two suction devices during cesarean section in patients with placenta previa and/or accrete: a randomized controlled trial
Chinese medical journal. 2020
BACKGROUND Cell salvage has recently been recommended for obstetric use in cases with a high risk of massive hemorrhage during cesarean section (CS). However, limited data are available to support the use of one suction device to collect lost blood. This study aimed to investigate the volume of red blood cells (RBCs) salvaged and the components of amniotic fluid (AF) in blood salvaged by one suction device or two devices during CS in patients with placenta previa and/or accrete. METHODS Thirty patients with placenta previa and/or accrete undergoing elective CS in the Women's Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine were recruited for the present study from November 1, 2017 to December 1, 2018. The patients were randomly assigned to one of the two groups according to an Excel-generated random number sheet: Group 1 (n = 15), in which only one suction device was used to aspirate all blood and AF, and Group 2 (n = 15), in which a second suction device was mainly used to aspirate AF before the delivery of the placenta. Three samples of blood per patient (pre-wash, post-wash, and post-filtration) were collected to measure AF components. The salvaged RBC volumes were recorded. Continuous data of pre-wash, post-wash, and post-filtration samples were analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance with Tukey's test for multiple comparisons, or Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn test for multiple comparisons. Comparisons of continuous data between Group 1 and Group 2 were conducted using Student's t test or Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS The salvaged RBC volume was significantly higher in Group 1 than that in Group 2 (401.6 +/- 77.2 mL vs. 330.1 +/- 53.3 mL, t = 4.175, P < 0.001). In both groups, squamous cells, lamellar bodies, and fat were significantly reduced by washing (all P<0.001) and squamous cells were further reduced by filtering (P < 0.001). Squamous cells were found in six post-filtration samples (three from each group). Lamellar bodies and fat were completely removed by filtering. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1, alpha-fetoprotein, albumin, lactate dehydrogenase, and potassium were significantly reduced post-wash (all P < 0.05), with no further significant reduction after filtration in either group (all P > 0.05). The mean percentage of fetal RBCs post-filtration was (1.8 +/- 0.8)% with a range of 1.0% to 3.5% and (1.9 +/- 0.9)% with a range of 0.7% to 4.0% in Groups 1 and 2, respectively, showing no significant difference between the two groups (U = 188.5, P = 0.651). CONCLUSION Cell salvage performed by one suction device could result in higher volume of salvaged RBCs and can be used safely for CS in patients with placenta previa and/or accrete when massive hemorrhage occurs. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER ChiCTR-INR-17012926, http://www.chictr.org.cn/ Chinese Clinical Trial Registry.
A new nomogram for individualized prediction of the probability of hemorrhagic transformation after intravenous thrombolysis for ischemic stroke patients
BMC neurology. 2020;20(1):426
BACKGROUND A reliable scoring tool to detect the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) after intravenous thrombolysis for ischemic stroke is warranted. The present study was designed to develop and validate a new nomogram for individualized prediction of the probability of hemorrhagic transformation (HT) in patients treated with intravenous (IV) recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA). METHODS We enrolled patients who suffered from acute ischemic stroke (AIS) with IV rt-PA treatment in our emergency green channel between August 2016 and July 2018. The main outcome was defined as any type of intracerebral hemorrhage according to the European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study II (ECASS II). All patients were randomly divided into two cohorts: the primary cohort and the validation cohort. On the basis of multivariate logistic model, the predictive nomogram was generated. The performance of the nomogram was evaluated by Harrell's concordance index (C-index) and calibration plot. RESULTS A total of 194 patients with complete data were enrolled, of whom 131 comprised the primary cohort and 63 comprised the validation cohort, with HT rate 12.2, 9.5% respectively. The score of chronic disease scale (CDS), the global burden of cerebral small vascular disease (CSVD), National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score ≥ 13, and onset-to-treatment time (OTT) ≥ 180 were detected important determinants of ICH and included to construct the nomogram. The nomogram derived from the primary cohort for HT had C- Statistics of 0.9562 and the calibration plot revealed generally fit in predicting the risk of HT. Furthermore, we made a comparison between our new nomogram and several other risk-assessed scales for HT with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, and the results showed the nomogram model gave an area under curve of 0.9562 (95%CI, 0.9221-0.9904, P < 0.01) greater than HAT (Hemorrhage After Thrombolysis), SEDAN (blood Sugar, Early infarct and hyper Dense cerebral artery sign on non-contrast computed tomography, Age, and NIHSS) and SPAN-100 (Stroke Prognostication using Age and NIHSS) scores. CONCLUSIONS This proposed nomogram based on the score of CDS, the global burden of CSVD, NIHSS score ≥ 13, and OTT ≥ 180 gives rise to a more accurate and more comprehensive prediction for HT in patients with ischemic stroke receiving IV rt-PA treatment.
Comparison of high ligation of great saphenous vein using pneumatic tourniquets and conventional method for great saphenous vein varicosis
To investigate the efficiency of high ligation, great saphenous vein stripping and subfascial perforator vein surgery for treating great saphenous vein varicosis under the assistance of sterilized electric pneumatic tourniquet and Esmarchs bandage.In total, 274 patients confirmed with primary varicosis between January 2014 and November 2017 were included in this study. Patients were divided intoAfter surgery, the affected limbs in both groups were wrapped up using the elastic bandage for 2 weeks, followed by wearing elastic stocking for 6 months. Then we analyzed the intraoperative bleeding, surgery time, subcutaneous hemorrhage after surgery and postoperative pains.The surgical time in the treatment group was significantly lower than that of control group (58.62 ± 7.47 minutes vs 76.35 ± 9.24 minutes, P < .01). The intraoperative bleeding in the treatment group was significantly lower than that of the control group (17.56 ± 3.52 ml vs 49.87 ± 8.78 ml, P < .01).High ligation, great saphenous vein stripping, and subfascial perforator vein surgery under the assistance of sterilized electric pneumatic tourniquet and Esmarch's bandage was effective for the treatment of varicosis in lower limbs featured by reduced surgery time and less bleeding.
Autologous platelet-rich plasma treatment for patients with diabetic foot ulcers: a meta-analysis of randomized studies
J Diabetes Complications. 2020;:107611
BACKGROUND This study will explore the effectiveness and safety of autologous PRP in the treatment of patients with DFU. METHODS The electronic databases of PubMed, EMBASE, BIOSIS, Cochrane central, and Google Scholar internet were searched updated on Jan 30, 2020. Evaluated outcomes included rate of complete ulcer healing, time to healing and adverse events. Statistical analysis was performed with RevMan 5.0 software and STATA 10.0 software. RESULTS Ten RCTs with 456 patients were included in this study. The meta-analysis showed a higher complete ulcer healing rate (RR=1.32, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.65, P=0.01, I(2)=57%), a shorter healing time (MD=-23.42, 95% CI -37.33 to -9.51, P=0.01, I(2)=78%), with no increasing the incidence of adverse events (RR=0.48, 95% CI 0.22 to 1.05, P=0.75, I(2)=0%) in PRP group compared with control. Mixed evidence was seen for publication bias, but analyses by using the trim-and-fill method did not appreciably alter results. CONCLUSION Our findings suggest that autologous PRP may improve the complete ulcer healing rate, shorten the healing time, with no increasing the incidence of adverse events.
Intra-Articular Injection of Tranexamic Acid on Perioperative Blood Loss During Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty
Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research. 2019;25:5068-5074
BACKGROUND Tranexamic acid (TXA) is safe and effective in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for the prevention of bleeding. However, the role of TXA during unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) remains unclear. This study aimed to compare operative blood loss in patients undergoing UKA treated with an intra-articular injection of TXA with controls undergoing UKA without TXA. MATERIAL AND METHODS The prospective study included 101 patients who underwent UKA between January 2014 to March 2018. All patients completed a preoperative routine examination and were randomized to the study group (n=54) and the control group (n-47). The study group was given an articular injection of TXA (1.5 g in 50 ml normal saline) after the fascia was closed; the control group was injected with the same volume of normal saline. Blood volumes were measured from the drainage tube of the two groups during 48 hours. Total blood loss, postoperative drainage, hidden blood loss, blood transfusion rates, postoperative hemoglobin values, indicators of coagulation function, and the rates of wound complications were recorded. RESULTS Total blood loss in the study group was 745.6+/-105.1 ml, total drainage volume was 353.9+/-79.5 ml, and the hidden blood loss was 391.7+/-80.5 ml, which were all significantly lower when compared with the control group (P<0.05). None of the patients in the two groups suffered complications of surgery. CONCLUSIONS Intra-articular injection of TXA significantly reduced the total blood loss in patients who underwent UKA and did not increase the rate of complications.
The efficacy of tranexamic acid for brain injury: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
The American journal of emergency medicine. 2019
BACKGROUND Tranexamic acid shows some treatment efficacy for traumatic brain injury. This systematic review and meta-analysis is conducted to investigate the efficacy of tranexamic acid for traumatic brain injury. METHODS The databases including PubMed, EMbase, Web of science, EBSCO, and Cochrane library databases are systematically searched for collecting the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) regarding the efficacy of tranexamic acid for traumatic brain injury. RESULTS This meta-analysis has included six RCTs. Compared with placebo group in patients with traumatic brain injury, tranexamic acid results in remarkably reduced mortality (risk ratio (RR)=0.91; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.85 to 0.97; P=0.004) and growth of hemorrhagic mass (RR=0.78; 95% CI=0.61 to 0.99; P=0.04), but has no important impact on neurosurgery (RR=0.99; 95% CI=0.85 to 1.15; P=0.92), extracranial surgery (RR=1.00; 95% CI=0.97 to 1.04; P=0.99), unfavorable outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale, GOS) (RR=0.72; 95% CI=0.47-1.11; P=0.14), pulmonary embolism (RR=1.86; 95% CI=0.42-8.29; P=0.42), and deep venous thrombosis (RR=0.97; 95% CI=0.64-1.47; P=0.88). CONCLUSIONS Tranexamic acid is associated with substantially reduced mortality and growth of hemorrhagic mass in patients with traumatic brain injury, but the need of neurosurgery and extracranial surgery, as well as the risk of unfavorable outcome (GOS) are similar between tranexamic acid and placebo.
The efficacy and safety of intravenous tranexamic acid in hip fracture surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Journal of orthopaedic translation. 2019;19:1-11
Objective: The present meta-analysis was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of intravenous application of tranexamic acid (TXA) with placebo in patients with hip fracture undergoing hip surgeries. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library were searched from inception until March 2018. A combined searching strategy of subject words and random words was adopted. Only randomized clinical trials were included. The comparisons regarding transfusion rate, total blood loss, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative blood loss, postoperative haemoglobin and postoperative thromboembolic complications were conducted. The meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager 5.3, and the bias evaluation was based on the Cochrane Handbook 5.1.0. Results: Ten randomized controlled trials published from 2007 to 2018 were included in the meta-analysis. The results showed that there were significant differences in the two groups concerning transfusion rate of allogeneic blood [risk ratio (RR) = 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.56 to 0.78, P = 0.003], total blood loss [mean difference (MD) = -273.00, 95% CI: -353.15 to -192.84, P < 0.00001], intraoperative blood loss (MD = -76.63, 95% CI: -139.55 to -13.71, P = 0.02), postoperative blood loss (MD = -125.29, 95% CI: -221.96 to -28.62, P = 0.01) and postoperative haemoglobin (MD = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.38 to 1.22, P = 0.0002). Nonsignificant differences were found in the incidence of thromboembolic events (RR = 1.38, 95% CI: 0.74 to 2.55, P = 0.31). Conclusions: This meta-analysis of the available evidence implies that the intravenous route of TXA shows an ability to reduce transfusion requirements and total blood loss, not increasing the incidence of thromboembolic events in patients undergoing hip surgeries. The translational potential of this article: The result of this meta-analysis shows that the utilization of intravenous TXA in patients with hip fracture undergoing hip surgeries possesses great potential in reducing blood loss and allogeneic blood transfusion safely.
Transfusions and cost-benefit of oral versus intravenous tranexamic acid in primary total hip arthroplasty: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to assess the cost benefit and transfusions of oral and IV tranexamic acid (TXA) in primary total hip arthroplasty (THA). METHODS PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing oral and IV TXA in primary THA. Primary outcomes were total blood loss, maximum hemoglobin drop, transfusion requirements, and cost benefit. Secondary outcomes were length of stay, deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and/or pulmonary embolism (PE). RESULTS Four independent RCTs were included involving 391 patients. There was no difference in the total blood loss (P = .99), maximum hemoglobin drop (P = .73), and the length of stay (P = .95) between the 2 groups. Transfusion requirements (P = .97) were similar. The total mean cost was the US $75.41 in oral TXA group and the US $580.83 in IV TXA group. The incidence of DVT (P = .3) did not differ significantly between the 2 groups, and no PE was reported in all studies. CONCLUSION Oral TXA shows similar efficacy and safety as IV TXA in reducing total blood loss, maximum hemoglobin drop and transfusion requirements in primary THA. However, oral TXA may be more cost-benefit than IV TXA. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Level I, therapeutic study.