Prevention of delayed post-polypectomy bleeding by prophylactic clipping after endoscopic colorectal polypectomy: a meta-analysis
International journal of colorectal disease. 2022
PURPOSE This meta-analysis aims to investigate the role of prophylactic clipping after endoscopic colorectal polypectomy or endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) in prevention of delayed bleeding (DB) following polypectomy. METHODS We searched the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases for randomized controlled trials comparing the effect of prophylactic clipping versus no clipping on DB since inception to 22nd April 2022. We then performed a meta-analysis using a random-effects model. RESULTS We included 8 studies with 5648 patients and 10,436 lesions. Prophylactic clipping did not reduce the overall risk of DB compared with no clipping (1.54% vs 2.05%; Log RR, -0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.59, 0.01; P = 0.06). In subgroup analyses, clipping significantly reduced DB rate in polyps ≥ 2 cm (Log RR, -0.63; 95% CI, -1.08, -0.18; P = 0.01), in non-pedunculated polyps (Log RR, -0.63; 95% CI, -1.01, -0.24; P = 0.00), and in large (≥ 2 cm) proximal polyps (Log RR, -0.81; 95% CI, -1.56, 0.05; P = 0.04), but not in polyps < 2 cm (Log RR, 0.01; 95% CI, -.40, 0.42; P = 0.95). CONCLUSION Prophylactic clipping does not prevent post-polypectomy bleeding after all EMR and should not be performed as a routine practice. Although prophylactic clipping may reduce DB rate following resection of large proximal polyps and non-pedunculated polyps, more high-quality studies are needed to determine the effects of factors such as polyp location, polyp morphology, antithrombotic drug use and complete or partial closure on the effectiveness of prophylactic clipping.
Comparative efficacy of intravenous and oral iron supplements for the treatment of iron deficiency in patients with heart failure: A network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Pharmacological research. 2022;182:106345
OBJECTIVE We aimed at comparing the efficacy of intravenous and oral iron supplementations for the treatment of iron deficiency (ID) in patients with heart failure (HF). METHODS We searched the PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase databases from inception to January 15, 2022. We included randomized controlled trials enrolling patients with HF who were treated for ID with intravenous iron supplements, oral iron supplements, or placebo. The primary outcomes were all-cause death, cardiovascular mortality, and hospitalization for heart failure. The secondary outcomes were evaluated through the six-minute walking test (6MWT) and the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ). RESULTS The network meta-analysis included sixteen studies. Compared to placebo/control groups, intravenous iron supplements did not decrease all-cause death (0.69, 0.39-1.23) or cardiovascular mortality (0.89, 0.66-1.20). After 12 weeks, a reduced hospitalization for heart failure was associated with the administration of intravenous iron supplementations (0.58, 0.34-0.97). The most significant improvements regarding 6MWT (44.44, 6.10-82.79) and KCCQ (5.96, 3.19-8.73) were observed with intravenous iron supplements. Oral iron supplements reduced hospitalization for heart failure (0.36, 0.14-0.96) and all-cause death (0.34, 0.12-0.95), but did not influence the 6MWT (29.74, -47.36 to 106.83) and KCCQ (0.10, -10.95 to 11.15). CONCLUSIONS Administering intravenous iron supplements for ID in patients with HF improves their exercise capacity and quality of life. In order to reduce hospitalizations for heart failure, the supplementation should be administered for more than 12 weeks. Although oral iron supplements did not improve exercise capacity and quality of life, they could reduce all-cause death and hospitalizations for heart failure.
Endoscopic Delivery of Polymers Reduces Delayed Bleeding after Gastric Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
New endoscopic approaches for the prevention of delayed bleeding (DB) after gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) have been reported in recent years, and endoscopic delivery of biodegradable polymers for iatrogenic ulcer hemostasis and coverage has emerged as one of the most promising techniques for post-ESD management. However, the comparative efficacy of these techniques remains uncertain. We performed a systematic search of multiple databases up to May 2022 to identify studies reporting DB rates as outcomes in patients undergoing gastric ESD who were treated with subsequent endoscopic management, including endoscopic closure (clip-based methods and suturing), PGA sheet tissue shielding, and hemostatic powder/gel spray (including polymeric sealants and other adhesives). The risk ratios (RRs) of delayed bleeding in treatment groups and control groups were pooled, and the Bayesian framework was used to perform a network meta-analysis (NMA). Among these studies, 16 head-to-head comparisons that covered 2742 lesions were included in the NMA. Tissue shielding using PGA sheets significantly reduced the risk of DB by nearly two thirds in high-risk patients, while hemostatic spray systems, primarily polymer-based, reduced DB in low-risk patients nine-fold. Researchers should recognize the essential role of polymers in the management of ESD-induced ulcers, and develop and validate clinical application strategies for promising materials.
Darbepoetin alfa injection versus epoetin alfa injection for treating anemia of Chinese hemodialysis patients with chronic kidney failure: A randomized, open-label, parallel-group, non-inferiority Phase III trail
Chronic diseases and translational medicine. 2022;8(1):59-70
BACKGROUND Erythropoietin is a glycoprotein that mainly regulates erythropoiesis. In patients with chronic renal failure with anemia, darbepoetin alfa can stimulate erythropoiesis, correct anemia, and maintain hemoglobin levels. This study was designed to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of darbepoetin alfa injections as being not inferior to epoetin alfa injections (Recombinant Human Erythropoietin injection, rHuEPO) when maintaining hemoglobin (Hb) levels within the target range (10.0-12.0 g/dL) for the treatment of renal anemia. METHODS Ninety-five patients were enrolled in this study from April 15, 2013 to April 10, 2014 at 25 sites. In this study, patients (n = 95) aged 18-70 years were randomized into a once per week intravenous darbepoetin alfa group (n = 56) and a twice or three times per week intravenous epoetin alfa group (n = 39) for 28 weeks, who had anemia with hemoglobin levels between 6 g/dL and 10 g/dL due to chronic kidney disease (CKD) and were undergoing hemodialysis or hemofiltration with ESA-naive (erythropoiesis stimulating agent-naive). The primary efficacy profile was the mean Hb level (the non-inferiority margin was -1.0 g/dL, week 21-28); the secondary efficacy profiles were the Hb increase rate (week 0-4), the target Hb achievement cumulative rate and time, the change trends of the Hb levels, and the target Hb maintenance ratio. Adverse events (AEs) were observed and compared, and the efficacy and safety were analyzed between the two treatment groups. Additionally, the frequencies of dose adjustments between the darbepoetin alfa and epoetin alfa groups were compared during the treatment period. SAS® software version 9.2 was used to perform all statistical analyses. Descriptive statistics were used for all efficacy, safety, and demographic variable analyses, including for the primary efficacy indicators. RESULTS The mean Hb level was 11.3 g/dL in the darbepoetin alfa group and 10.7 g/dL in the epoetin alfa group, respectively; the difference of the lower limits of the 95% confidence intervals (CI) between the two groups was 0.1 g/dL (>-1.0 g/dL), and non-inferiority was proven; the Hb levels started to increase in the first four weeks at a similar increase rate; no obvious differences were observed between the groups in the target Hb achievement cumulative rates, and the Hb levels as well as the target Hb level maintenance rate changed over time. The incidence of AEs was 62.5% in the darbepoetin alfa group and 76.9% in the epoetin alfa group. All the adverse events observed in the study were those commonly associated with hemodialysis. CONCLUSION Darbepoetin alfa intravenously once per week can effectively increase Hb levels and maintain the target Hb levels well, which makes it not inferior to epoetin alfa intravenously twice or three times per week. Darbepoetin alfa shows an efficacy and safety comparable to epoetin alfa for the treatment of renal anemia.
Efficacy and safety of darbepoetin alfa injection replacing epoetin alfa injection for the treatment of renal anemia in Chinese hemodialysis patients: A randomized, open-label, parallel-group, noninferiority phase III trial
Chronic diseases and translational medicine. 2022;8(2):134-144
BACKGROUND This study was to explore the clinical efficacy and safety of darbepoetin alfa injection replacing epoetin alfa injection (recombinant human erythropoietin injection, rHuEPO) for the treatment of anemia associated with chronic kidney failure in Chinese patients undergoing hemodialysis. METHOD This study was a multicenter, randomized, open-label, intergroup parallel control phase III noninferiority trial from April 19, 2013 to September 9, 2014 at 25 sites. In this study, the members of the darbepoetin alfa group underwent intravenous administration once per week or once every two weeks. The members of the control drug epoetin alfa group underwent intravenous administration two or three times per week. All subjects underwent epoetin alfa administration during the 8-week baseline period. After that, subjects were randomly assigned to the darbepoetin alfa group or epoetin alfa group. The noninferiority in the changes of the average Hb concentrations from the baseline to the end of the evaluation period (noninferiority threshold: -1.0 g/dl) was tested between the two treatments. The time-dependent hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and the maintenance rate of the target Hb concentration (the proportion of subjects with Hb concentrations between 10.0 and 12.0 g/dl) were also evaluated. Iron metabolism, including changes in the serum iron, total iron-binding capacity, ferritin, transferrin saturation, and comparisons of the dose adjustments between the two groups during the treatment period were analyzed further. Adverse events (AEs) were also observed and compared, and the safety was analyzed between the two treatment groups. The conversion rate switching from epoetin alfa to darbepoetin alfa was also discussed. SAS® software version 9.2 was used to perform all statistical analyses. Descriptive statistics were used for all efficacy, safety, and demographic variable analyses, including for the primary efficacy indicators. RESULTS Four hundred and sixty-six patients were enrolled in this study, and ultimately 384 cases were analyzed for safety, including 267 cases in the darbepoetin alfa group and 117 cases in the epoetin alfa group. There were 211 cases in the per-protocol set, including 152 cases in the darbepoetin alfa group and 59 cases in the epoetin alfa group. The changes in the average Hb concentrations from the baseline to the end of the evaluation period were -0.07 and -0.15 g/dl in the darbepoetin alfa group and epoetin alfa group respectively. The difference between the two groups was 0.08 g/dl (95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.22 to 0.39), and the lower limit of the 95% CI was -0.22 > -1.0 g/dl. The average Hb concentrations of the two groups were 10.88-11.43 g/dl (darbepoetin alfa) and 10.91-11.38 g/dl (epoetin alfa) during the study period of Weeks 0-28, with the maintenance rates of the target Hb concentration ranging within 71%-87% and 78%-95% in the darbepoetin alfa group and epoetin alfa group respectively. During the period of comparison between the two groups, the incidence of AEs in the darbepoetin alfa group was 61.42%, while in the epoetin alfa group it was 56.41%. All of the adverse events and reactions in the study were those commonly associated with hemodialysis. CONCLUSION The overall efficacy and safety of darbepoetin alfa for the treatment of Chinese renal anemia patients undergoing hemodialysis are consistent with those of epoetin alfa.
Association of Use of Tourniquets During Total Knee Arthroplasty in the Elderly Patients With Post-operative Pain and Return to Function
Frontiers in public health. 2022;10:825408
OBJECTIVE During total knee arthroplasty (TKA), tourniquet may negatively impact post-operative functional recovery. This study aimed at investigating the effects of tourniquet on pain and return to function. METHODS Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane Library were comprehensively searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published up to February 15th, 2020. Search terms included; total knee arthroplasty, tourniquet, and randomized controlled trial. RCTs evaluating the efficacies of tourniquet during and after operation were selected. Two reviewers independently extracted the data. Effect estimates with 95% CIs were pooled using the random-effects model. Dichotomous data were calculated as relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Mean differences (MD) with 95% CI were used to measure the impact of consecutive results. Primary outcomes were the range of motion (ROM) and visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores. RESULTS Thirty-three RCTs involving a total of 2,393 patients were included in this study. The mean age is 65.58 years old. Compared to no tourniquet group, the use of a tourniquet resulted in suppressed ROM on the 3rd post-operative day [MD, -4.67; (95% CI, -8.00 to -1.35)] and the 1st post-operative month [MD, -3.18; (95% CI, -5.92 to -0.44)]. Pain increased significantly when using tourniquets on the third day after surgery [MD, 0.39; (95% CI, -0.19 to 0.59)]. Moreover, tourniquets can reduce intra-operative blood loss [MD, -127.67; (95% CI, -186.83 to -68.50)], shorter operation time [MD, -3.73; (95% CI, -5.98 to -1.48)], lower transfusion rate [RR, 0.85; (95% CI, 0.73-1.00)], higher superficial wound infection rates RR, 2.43; [(5% CI, 1.04-5.67)] and higher all complication rates [RR, 1.98; (95% CI, 1.22-3.22)]. CONCLUSION Moderate certainty evidence shows that the use of a tourniquet was associated with an increased risk of higher superficial wound infection rates and all complication rates. Therefore, the findings did not support the routine use of a tourniquet during TKA.
Restrictive vs. Liberal Red Blood Cell Transfusion Strategy in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction and Anemia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine. 2021;8:736163
Objective: Anemia is frequent in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and the optimal red blood cell transfusion strategy for AMI patients with anemia is still controversial. We aimed to compare the efficacy of restrictive and liberal red cell transfusion strategies in AMI patients with anemia. Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Clinicaltrials.gov, from their inception until March 2021. Studies designed to compare the efficacy between restrictive and liberal red blood cell transfusion strategies in patients with AMI were included. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality, including overall mortality, in-hospital or follow-up mortality. Risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were presented and pooled by random-effects models. Results: The search yielded a total of 6,630 participants in six studies. A total of 2,008 patients received restrictive red blood cell transfusion while 4,622 patients were given liberal red blood cell transfusion. No difference was found in overall mortality and follow-up mortality between restrictive and liberal transfusion groups (RR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.82-1.40, P = 0.62; RR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.56-1.42, P = 0.62). However, restrictive transfusion tended to have a higher risk of in-hospital mortality compared with liberal transfusion (RR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.00-1.50, P = 0.05). No secondary outcomes, including follow-up reinfarction, stroke, and acute heart failure, differed significantly between the two groups. In addition, subgroup analysis showed no differences in overall mortality between the two groups based on sample size and design. Conclusion: Restrictive and liberal red blood cell transfusion have a similar effect on overall mortality and follow-up mortality in AMI patients with anemia. However, restrictive transfusion tended to have a higher risk of in-hospital mortality compared with liberal transfusion. The findings suggest that transfusion strategy should be further evaluated in future studies.
The effect of pantoprazole and somatostatin combined with thrombin in the treatment of non-esophagogastric varicosity upper gastrointestinal bleeding
American journal of translational research. 2021;13(5):5484-5490
OBJECTIVE To explore the effect of pantoprazole and somatostatin combined with thrombin in the treatment of non-esophagogastric varicosity upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB) as well as its influence on serum hs-CRP and coagulation function. METHODS From June 2016 to May 2018, patients with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to non-esophagogastric varices in our hospital were selected as research subjects. After screening, they were randomly divided into the combined group (57 cases) and the control group (57 cases). After the two groups are treated, the therapeutic effect was observed. The two groups of patients were followed up for 6 consecutive months, and the data were statistically analyzed. RESULTS It was found that there wass no significant difference between the two groups in gender, age, amount of bleeding, and etiology (P > 0.05). It was found that the immediate hemostasis rate and the hemostasis rate within 24 hours in the combined group were distinctly higher compared to the control group. The difference has statistical significance (P < 0.05). The total effective rate of the combined group was distinctly higher compared to the control group (P < 0.05). By comparing the expression levels of hs-CRP and IL-6 protein in the serum of the two groups before and after treatment, it was found that there was no significant difference in the expression levels of hs-CRP and IL-6 protein before treatment. However, after treatment, it was found that the levels of hs-CRP and IL-6 protein in the combined group were distinctly lower compared to the control group (P < 0.05). By analyzing adverse reactions, it was found that the combined group had distinctly lower adverse reactions compared to the control group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION This work provides an experimental basis for the diagnosis and treatment of non-esophagogastric varicose UGB in the clinic.
Efficacy and safety of current treatment interventions for patients with severe COVID-19 infection: a network meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials
Journal of medical virology. 2021
This study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of different medications available at present for severe COVID-19 infection. We searched databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published up to April 30, 2021, with Chinese or English language restriction, of medications recommended for patients (aged 18 years or older) with severe COVID-19 infection. We extracted data on trials and patient characteristics, and the following primary outcomes: all-cause mortality (ACM), and treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs). We identified 1,855 abstracts and of these included 15 RCTs comprising 3,073 participants through database searches and other sources. In terms of efficacy, compared with the standard of care (SOC) group, no significant decrease in ACM was found in α-Lipoic acid, convalescent plasma (CP), azithromycin, tocilizumab, methylprednisolone, interferon beta, CP/SOC, high dosage sarilumab, low dosage sarilumab, remdesivir, lopinavir-ritonavir, auxora and placebo group. Compared with placebo, we found that a significant decrease in ACM was only found in methylprednisolone [odds ratio (OR) 0.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.03-0.75]. With respect to TEAEs, the CP group showed lower TEAEs than placebo (OR 0.07, 95% CI 0.01-0.58) or SOC (OR 0.05, 95% CI 0.01-0.42) group for the therapy of severe COVID-19 patients. This study only demonstrated that methylprednisolone was superior to placebo in treating patients with severe COVID-19 infection. Meanwhile, this further confirmed that the safety of other treatment interventions might be inferior to CP for the therapy of severe COVID-19 patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Liberal blood transfusion strategies and associated infection in orthopedic patients: A meta-analysis
OBJECTIVE It remains unclear whether transfusion strategies during orthopedic surgery and infection are related. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether liberal blood transfusion strategies contribute to infection risk in orthopedic patients by analyzing randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS RCTs with liberal versus restrictive red blood cell (RBC) transfusion strategies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from their inception to July 2019. Ten studies with infections as outcomes were included in the final analysis. According to the Jadad scale, all studies were considered to be of high quality. RESULTS Ten trials involving 3938 participants were included in this study. The pooled risk ratio (RR) for the association between liberal transfusion strategy and infection was 1.34 (95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.94-1.90; P = .106). The sensitivity analysis indicated unstable results, and no significant publication bias was observed. CONCLUSION This pooled analysis of RCTs demonstrates that liberal transfusion strategies in orthopedic patients result in a nonsignificant increase in infections compared with more restrictive strategies. The conclusions are mainly based on retrospective studies and should not be considered as recommendation before they are supported by larger scale and well-designed RCTs.