The Role of Knee Position in Blood Loss and Enhancement of Recovery after Total Knee Arthroplasty
J Knee Surg. 2020
The study aimed to investigate the effects of postoperative position of knee on blood loss and functional recovery after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We enrolled patients who underwent TKA from 2017 to 2019 in our department with osteoarthritis of the knee in this prospective and randomized study. The patients were randomly allocated to flexion or extension group. In the flexion group, the affected leg was elevated by 30 degrees at the hip and the knee was flexed by 30-degree, postoperatively, while in the extension group, the affected knee was fully extended postoperatively. Patients' data related to postoperative blood loss, Hospital for Special Surgery scores, pain intensity, usage of analgesic drugs, circumference of knee, and range of motion (ROM) of knee were recorded to assess the influence of postoperative leg position on clinical outcomes. Although the transfusion rate was similar between the two groups (p > 0.05), other parameters related to blood loss (including total blood loss, hidden blood loss, usage of analgesic drugs, and postoperative circumference of knee) were significantly lower in the flexion group than those in the extension group (p < 0.05). After 6 weeks and 6 months of rehabilitation, patients gained a similar ROM in the affected knee in both groups (p > 0.05). The length of hospital stay and medical expenses were similar in both groups. Incidence of wound infection and other complications was also similar in both groups (p > 0.05). Elevation of the hip by knee flexion of 30 degrees is an effective and simple method to reduce blood loss after TKA, and contributes to reduction of the dosage of analgesic drugs in the early postoperative period. The routine application of the present protocol also did not increase medical costs and length of hospital stay after TKA.
Platelet-Rich Plasma-Incorporated Autologous Granular Bone Grafts Improve Outcomes of Post-Traumatic Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head
The Journal of arthroplasty. 2019
BACKGROUND To investigate the effects of platelet-rich plasma (PRP)-incorporated autologous granular bone grafts for treatment in the precollapse stages (Association of Research Circulation Osseous stage II-III) of posttraumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head. METHODS A total of 46 patients were eligible and enrolled in the study. Twenty-four patients were treated with core decompression and PRP-incorporated autologous granular bone grafting (treatment group), and 22 patients were treated with core decompression and autologous granular bone grafting (control group). During a minimum follow-up duration of 36 months, X-ray and computed tomography were used to evaluate the radiological results, and the Harris hip score (HHS) and visual analog scale were chosen to assess the clinical results. RESULTS Both the treatment and control groups had a significantly improved HHS (P < .001). The minimum clinically important difference for the HHS was reached in 91.7% of the treatment group and 68.2% of the control group (P < .05). The HHS and visual analog scale in the treatment group were significantly improved than that in the control group at the last follow-up (P < .05). Successful clinical and radiological results were achieved 87.5% and 79.2% in the treatment group compared with 59.1% and 50.0% in the control group (P < .05), respectively. The survival rates based on the requirement for further hip surgery as an endpoint were higher in the treatment group in comparison to those in the control group (P < .05). CONCLUSION PRP-incorporated autologous granular bone grafting is a safe and effective procedure for treatment in the precollapse stages (Association of Research Circulation Osseous stage II-III) of posttraumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head.
The efficacy and safety of topical tranexamic acid: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Transfusion Medicine Reviews. 2018
Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an effective hemostatic agent used for the reduction of blood loss and transfusion. However, the safety profile of TXA remains in question due to a potential increased risk of venous thromboembolism. By applying TXA topically as opposed to intravenously, systemic absorption may be reduced and unwanted side-effects mitigated. The objective of our review is to investigate the efficacy and safety of topically applied tranexamic acid compared to both placebo, and the intravenous administration. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, Embase, ISI Web of Science, PubMed, and Clinicaltrials.gov were searched from inception to November, 2016. We included randomized controlled trials that compared topical tranexamic acid to either placebo (or standard care) or intravenous administration, in adult patients. Surgical and non-surgical trials were included. Abstract, full-text selection, data extraction and risk of bias assessment were all performed in duplicate. In total, 67 studies involving 6,034 patients met inclusion criteria. The majority of trials evaluated orthopedic procedures. Compared to placebo, the administration of topical TXA significantly reduced the odds of receiving a blood transfusion (pooled OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.38; P < 0.001) and significantly reduced mean blood loss (WMD -276.6, 95% CI -327.8 to -225.4; P < 0.0001). When compared to the intravenous administration, there was no difference between the two groups in terms of transfusion requirements (pooled OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.46; P=0.88) or blood loss (WMD -21.95, 95% CI -66.61 to 27.71; P=0.34). There was no difference in the odds of developing a venous thromboembolic complication between the topical TXA and control groups (pooled OR=0.78, 95% CI 0.47 to 1.29; P=0.33) or the topical and intravenous groups (pooled OR=0.75, 95% CI 0.39 to 1.46; P=0.40). The topical application of TXA effectively reduces both transfusion risk and blood loss compared to placebo, without increasing thromboembolic risks. There were no major differences between topical and intravenous tranexamic acid with respect to safety and efficacy, and both were superior to placebo with regards to blood loss and transfusion requirements. Further study of the topical application is required outside of the field of orthopedics.