Luspatercept for the treatment of anaemia in non-transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia (BEYOND): a phase 2, randomised, double-blind, multicentre, placebo-controlled trial
The Lancet. Haematology. 2022
BACKGROUND In patients with non-transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia, haemoglobin concentrations lower than 10 g/dL are associated with a higher risk of morbidity, mortality, and impaired quality of life. No drugs are specifically approved for anaemia management in patients with non-transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia, other than transfusion therapy administered infrequently in accordance with patients' needs. We assessed the efficacy and safety of luspatercept versus placebo in patients with non-transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia. METHODS We did a phase 2, randomised, double-blind, multicentre, placebo-controlled trial in 12 centres in six countries (Thailand [n=1], Lebanon [n=1], Greece [n=2], Italy [n=5], the UK [n=1], and the USA [n=2]). Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, had confirmed diagnosis of β-thalassaemia or haemoglobin E/β-thalassaemia (concomitant α-globin deletion, mutation, or duplication were allowed), and a baseline haemoglobin concentration of 10·0 g/dL or lower. All patients were non-transfusion-dependent. Patients were randomly assigned (2:1) to luspatercept or placebo using an interactive response technology system and stratified by baseline haemoglobin concentration (≥8·5 g/dL vs <8·5 g/dL) and baseline Non-Transfusion-Dependent β-thalassaemia-Patient-Reported Outcome Tiredness/Weakness domain score (≥3 vs <3). All patients, study site staff, and sponsor representatives (who reviewed the data), except for designated individuals, were masked to drug assignment until the time the study was unblinded. Luspatercept or placebo was given once subcutaneously every 3 weeks for 48 weeks in the double-blind treatment period. Luspatercept was started at 1·0 mg/kg with titration up to 1·25 mg/kg, or reduction in the event of toxicity or excessive haemoglobin concentration increase. The primary endpoint was achievement of an increase from baseline of 1·0 g/dL or higher in mean haemoglobin concentration over a continuous 12-week interval during weeks 13-24, in the absence of transfusions. The primary efficacy and safety analyses were done in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03342404, and is ongoing. FINDINGS Between Feb 5, 2018, and Oct 14, 2019, 160 patients were screened for eligiblity, of whom 145 were randomly assigned to luspatercept (n=96) or placebo (n=49). 82 (57%) patients were female and 63 (43%) were male. 44 (30%) patients were Asian, 87 (60%) were White, and 14 (10%) identified as another race. The study met its primary endpoint: 74 (77%) of 96 patients in the luspatercept group and none in the placebo group had an increase of at least 1·0 g/dL in haemoglobin concentration (common risk difference 77·1 [95% CI 68·7-85·5]; p<0·0001). The proportion of patients with serious adverse events was lower in the luspatercept group than in the placebo group (11 [12%] vs 12 [25%]). Treatment-emergent adverse events most commonly reported with luspatercept were bone pain (35 [37%]), headache (29 [30%]), and arthralgia (28 [29%]). No thromboembolic events or deaths were reported during the study. INTERPRETATION Luspatercept represents a potential treatment for adult patients with non-transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia, for whom effective approved treatment options are scarce. FUNDING Celgene and Acceleron Pharma.
Design of the silent cerebral infarct transfusion (SIT) trial
Patients with non-transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia enrolled in the BEYOND trial, in Thailand, Lebanon, Greece, Italy, UK, and USA (n= 145).
Luspatercept (n= 96).
Placebo (n= 49).
The primary endpoint was achievement of an increase from baseline of 1.0 g/dL or higher in mean haemoglobin concentration over a continuous 12-week interval during weeks 13-24, in the absence of transfusions. The study met its primary endpoint: 74 (77%) of 96 patients in the luspatercept group and none in the placebo group had an increase of at least 1.0 g/dL in haemoglobin concentration (common risk difference 77.1 [95% Confidence Interval: 68.7-85.5]). The proportion of patients with serious adverse events was lower in the luspatercept group than in the placebo group (11 [12%] vs. 12 [25%]). Treatment-emergent adverse events most commonly reported with luspatercept were bone pain (35 [37%]), headache (29 [30%]), and arthralgia (28 [29%]). No thromboembolic events or deaths were reported.
Pediatric Hematology and Oncology. 2010;27((2):):69-89.
BACKGROUND Silent cerebral infarct (SCI) is the most common cause of serious neurological disease in sickle cell anemia (SCA), affecting approximately 22% of children. The goal of this trial is to determine whether blood transfusion therapy will reduce further neurological morbidity in children with SCI, and if so, the magnitude of this benefit. PROCEDURE The Silent Cerebral Infarct Transfusion (SIT) Trial includes 29 clinical sites and 3 subsites, a Clinical Coordinating Center, and a Statistical and Data Coordinating Center, to test the following hypothesis: prophylactic blood transfusion therapy in children with SCI will result in at least an 86% reduction in the rate of subsequent overt strokes or new or progressive cerebral infarcts as defined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. The intervention is blood transfusion versus observation. Two hundred and four participants (102 in each treatment assignment) will ensure 85% power to detect the effect necessary to recommend transfusion therapy (86% reduction), after accounting for 10% drop out and 19% crossover rates. MRI examination of the brain is done at screening, immediately before randomization and study exit. Each randomly assigned participant receives a cognitive test battery at study entry, 12-18 months later, and study exit and an annual neurological examination. Blood is obtained from all screened participants for a biologic repository containing serum and a renewable source of DNA. CONCLUSION The SIT Trial could lead to a change in standard care practices for children affected with SCA and SCI, with a consequent reduction in neurological morbidity.