Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Effects of Transfusion on Hemodynamic and Oxygenation Variables
Cavalcante Dos Santos E, Orbegozo D, Mongkolpun W, Galfo V, Nan W, Gouvea Bogossian E, Taccone FS, Vallet B, Creteur J, Vincent JL
Critical care medicine. 2020;48(2):241-248
OBJECTIVES RBC transfusions can increase oxygen availability to the tissues, but studies have provided conflicting results. The objectives of this study were, therefore, to evaluate, using systematic review and meta-analysis, the effects of transfusion on hemodynamic/oxygenation variables in patients without acute bleeding. DATA SOURCES PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Embase from inception until June 30, 2019. STUDY SELECTION All articles that reported values of prespecified hemodynamic or oxygenation variables before and after RBC transfusion. DATA EXTRACTION Publication year, number of patients, number of transfusions and the type of population studied, hemodynamic and oxygenation data (heart rate, cardiac index, mixed venous oxygen saturation or central venous oxygen saturation, oxygen delivery index, oxygen consumption index, oxygen extraction ratio, arteriovenous oxygen difference and arterial blood lactate) before and after transfusion. We performed a meta-analysis for each variable for which there were sufficient data to estimate mean differences. We also performed subgroup analyses comparing septic with nonseptic patients. DATA SYNTHESIS We retrieved 6,420 studies; 33 met the inclusion criteria, 14 of which were in patients with sepsis. In the meta-analysis, the estimated mean differences and 95% CIs comparing the periods before and after transfusion were -0.0 L/min/m (-0.1 to 0.1 L/min/m) (p = 0.86) for cardiac index; -1.8 beats/min (-3.7 to 0.1 beats/min) (p = 0.06) for heart rate; 96.8 mL/min/m (71.1-122.5 mL/min/m) (p < 0.01) for oxygen delivery index; 2.9% (2.2-3.5%) (p < 0.01) for mixed venous oxygen saturation or central venous oxygen saturation; -3.7% (-4.4% to -3.0%) (p < 0.01) for oxygen extraction ratio; and 4.9 mL/min/m (0.9-9.0 mL/min/m) (p = 0.02) for oxygen consumption index. The estimated mean difference for oxygen consumption index in the patients with sepsis was 8.4 mL/min/m (2.3-14.5 mL/min/m; p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS Transfusion was not associated with a decrease in mean cardiac output or mean heart rate. The increase in mean oxygen delivery following transfusion was associated with an increase in mean oxygen consumption after transfusion, especially in patients with sepsis.
Albumin administration improves organ function in critically ill hypoalbuminemic patients: A prospective, randomized, controlled, pilot study
Dubois MJ, Orellana-Jimenez C, Melot C, De Backer D, Berre J, Leeman M, Brimioulle S, Appoloni O, Creteur J, Vincent JL
Critical Care Medicine. 2006;34((10):):2536-40.
OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that administration of albumin to correct hypoalbuminemia might have beneficial effects on organ function in a mixed population of critically ill patients. DESIGN : Prospective, controlled, randomized study. SETTING Thirty-one-bed, mixed medicosurgical department of intensive care. PATIENTS All adult patients with a serum albumin concentration < or =30 g/L were assessed for eligibility. Principal exclusion criteria were expected length of stay <72 hrs, life expectancy <3 months or a do-not-resuscitate order, albumin administration in the preceding 24 hrs, or evidence of fluid overload. INTERVENTIONS The 100 patients were randomized to receive 300 mL of 20% albumin solution on the first day, then 200 mL/day provided their serum albumin concentration was <31 g/dL (albumin group), or to receive no albumin (control group). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS The primary outcome was the effect of albumin administration on organ function as assessed by a delta Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score from day 1 to day 7 (or the day of intensive care discharge or death, whichever came first). The two groups of 50 patients were comparable at baseline for age, gender, albumin concentration, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score. Albumin concentration did not change over time in the control group but increased consistently in the albumin group (p < . 001). Organ function improved more in the albumin than in the control group (p = . 026), mainly due to a difference in respiratory, cardiovascular, and central nervous system components of the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score. Diuretic use was identical in both groups, but mean fluid gain was almost three times higher in the control group (1679 +/- 1156 vs. 658 +/- 1101 mL, p = . 04). Median daily calorie intake was higher in the albumin than in the control group (1122 [935-1158] vs. 760 [571-1077] kcal, p = . 05). CONCLUSIONS Albumin administration may improve organ function in hypoalbuminemic critically ill patients. It results in a less positive fluid balance and a better tolerance to enteral feeding.
Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of once-weekly subcutaneous epoetin alfa in critically ill patients: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Vincent JL, Spapen HD, Creteur J, Piagnerelli M, Hubloue I, Diltoer M, Roman A, Stevens E, Vercammen E, Beaver JS
Critical Care Medicine. 2006;34((6):):1661-7.
OBJECTIVE To describe the erythropoietin pharmacokinetic profile after once-weekly epoetin alfa treatment in critically ill patients. Secondary objectives were to compare pharmacodynamic and safety profiles between active treatment and placebo in these patients. DESIGN Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. SETTING Medical, surgical, or mixed medical/surgical intensive care units. PATIENTS A total of 73 anemic critically ill adults with an expected stay of >3 days and a hematocrit value of <38%. INTERVENTIONS Patients were randomized 2:1 to epoetin alfa, 40,000 IU, administered subcutaneously once weekly (n=48) or matching placebo (n=25) for up to 4 wks. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Serum erythropoietin concentration and hematologic variables (percentage reticulocytes [RETI], hemoglobin [Hb], and total red blood cell [RBC] counts) were measured, and area under the serum concentration-time curve from time 0 to the last blood sampling time at time t (t: 120, 144, or 168 hrs) postdose (AUC0-Tlast) for these three variables was determined. Mean serum erythropoietin concentrations in placebo patients were slightly higher than typical physiologic levels of erythropoietin in healthy subjects, although not appropriate for the degree of anemia in these patients. Overall, exposure of endogenous erythropoietin in the placebo group (in terms of AUC0-Tlast) was only about 20% of exposure to exogenous erythropoietin in the epoetin alfa group. Baseline hemoglobin levels were the same in both groups (9. 9 g/dL). Mean change in hemoglobin level from baseline through day 29 was 1. 9 g/dL and 1. 6 g/dL in the epoetin alfa and placebo groups, respectively. Mean AUC(RETI)0-Tlast was higher with epoetin alfa than with placebo and was related to the AUC of erythropoietin. There were no apparent differences in AUC(Hb)0-Tlast and AUC(RBC)0-Tlast between epoetin alfa and placebo groups, which was most likely due to bleeding and transfusion events. Epoetin alfa was safe and well tolerated, with a rate of treatment-emergent complications similar to that seen with placebo. CONCLUSION Epoetin alfa, once weekly, augmented the erythropoietic response in critically ill patients as indicated by the increased erythropoietin levels and larger AUC(RETI)0-Tlast in treated patients.