IVMP+IVIG raises platelet counts faster than IVIG alone: results of a randomized, blinded trial in childhood ITP
Blood Adv. 2020;4(7):1492-1500
Children with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) rarely suffer from life-threatening bleeds (eg, intracranial hemorrhage). In such settings, the combination of IV methylprednisolone (IVMP) with IV immune globulin (IVIG) is used to rapidly increase platelet counts (PCs). However, there are no controlled data to support using combination therapy over IVIG alone. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the rapidity of the PC increment and associated adverse events (AEs) between 2 regimens: A (IV placebo) and B (IVMP 30 mg/kg), both given over 1 hour, followed in both cases by IVIG (Gamunex 10%) 1 g/kg over 2-3 hours in children 1-17 years old with primary ITP and PCs <20 x 109/L in whom physicians had decided to treat with IVIG. Thirty-two children (ages: median, 8 years; range, 1.2-17.5 years) with a mean baseline PC of 9.2 x 109/L participated. Eighteen were randomized to regimen A and 14 to regimen B. By 8 hours after initiating therapy, 55% of all children had a PC ≥20 x 109/L (no group difference). By 24 hours, mean PCs were 76.9 x 109/L (B) vs 55 x 109/L (A) (P = .06; P = .035 when adjusted for intergroup differences in patient ages). No patient experienced severe bleeding/unexpected severe AEs. There were statistically fewer IVIG-related headaches in the group receiving combination therapy (P = .046). Our findings show a rapid response to IVIG with/without steroids and provide evidence to support the use of IVMP+IVIG in life-threatening situations. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00376077.
Transfusion of packed red blood cells at the end of shelf life is associated with increased risk of mortality - a pooled patient data analysis of 16 observational trials
Children with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), (n=32).
IV methylprednisolone (IVMP 30 mg/kg) followed by IVIG (Gamunex 10%) 1 g/kg, (n=14).
IV placebo followed by IVIG (Gamunex 10%) 1 g/kg, (n=18).
By 8 hours after initiating therapy, 55% of all children had a platelet count (PC) >/=20 x 109/L (no group difference). By 24 hours, mean PCs were 76.9 x 109/L (B) vs 55 x 109/L (A). No patient experienced severe bleeding/unexpected severe associated adverse events. There were statistically fewer IVIG-related headaches in the group receiving combination therapy.
Observational studies address packed red blood cell effects at the end of shelf life and have larger sample sizes compared to randomized control trials. Meta-analyses combining data from observational studies have been complicated by differences in aggregate transfused packed red blood cell age and outcome reporting. This study abrogated these issues by taking a pooled patient data approach. Observational studies reporting packed red blood cell age and clinical outcomes were identified and patient-level data sets were sought from investigators. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for binary outcomes were calculated for each study, with mean packed red blood cell age or maximum packed red blood cell age acting as independent variables. The relationship between mean packed red blood cell age and hospital length of stay for each paper was analyzed using zero-inflated Poisson regression. Random effects models combined paper-level effect estimates. Extremes analyses were completed by comparing patients transfused with mean packed red blood cell aged less than ten days to those transfused with mean packed red blood cell aged at least 30 days. sixteen datasets were available for pooled patient data analysis. Mean packed red blood cell age of at least 30 days was associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality compared to mean packed red blood cell of less than ten days (odds ratio: 3.25, 95% confidence interval: 1.27-8.29). Packed red blood cell age was not correlated to increased risks of nosocomial infection or prolonged length of hospital stay.Copyright© 2018 Ferrata Storti Foundation.
Eltrombopag for the treatment of children with persistent and chronic immune thrombocytopenia (PETIT): a randomised, multicentre, placebo-controlled study
The Lancet Haematology. 2015;2((8)):e315-25.
BACKGROUND The oral thrombopoietin receptor agonist eltrombopag is approved for treatment of adults with chronic immune thrombocytopenia. In the PETIT trial, we aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of eltrombopag in children with persistent or chronic immune thrombocytopenia. METHODS PETIT was a three-part, randomised, multicentre, placebo-controlled study done at 22 centres in the USA, UK, Canada, Spain, France, and the Netherlands. Patients aged 1-17 years with immune thrombocytopenia lasting for 6 months or longer and platelets less than 30 x 10(9) per L who had received at least one previous treatment were enrolled. We enrolled patients into three cohorts consisting of patients aged 12-17, 6-11, and 1-5 years. We established patients' starting doses with an open-label, dose-finding phase with five patients in each cohort. During the dose-finding phase, patients aged 6-17 years started eltrombopag at 25 mg once per day (125 mg for those weighing <27 kg) and patients aged 1-5 years received 07 mg/kg per day to a maximum of 2 mg/kg unless otherwise approved. We permitted dose adjustments on the basis of platelet response up to a maximum dosage of 75 mg per day. Additional patients were then recruited and randomly assigned (2:1) to receive either eltrombopag or placebo tablets (or oral suspension formulation if aged 1-5 years) once per day for 7 weeks at the previously established doses. Starting doses for the double-blind phase were 375 mg/day for patients aged 12-17 years; 50 mg/day for patients weighing 27 kg or more (25 mg for east Asian patients) and 25 mg/day for patients weighing less than 27 kg (125 mg once per day for east Asian patients) for patients aged 6-11 years; and 15 mg/kg once per day (08 mg/kg once per day for east Asian patients) for patients aged 1-5 years. Randomisation was done by the GlaxoSmithKline Registration/Medication Ordering System and both patients and study personnel were masked to treatment assignments. Patients who completed treatment were then enrolled into an open-label phase and all patients could receive up to 24 weeks of eltrombopag. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients achieving a platelet count of 50 x 10(9) per L or more at least once from weeks 1-6 (days 8 to 43) of the randomised phase of the study in the absence of rescue therapy. We assessed efficacy in the intent-to-treat population, which consisted of all patients assigned to treatment, and we assessed safety in all patients who received at least one dose of study treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00908037. FINDINGS Between Oct 2, 2009, and June 22, 2011, we recruited 15 patients, with five patients in each age cohort, into the open-label dose-finding phase who did not progress into the double-blind phase. From March 17, 2010, to Jan 15, 2013, we randomly assigned 67 patients to treatment, with 45 patients assigned to receive eltrombopag (16 children aged 12-17 years, 19 aged 6-11 years, and ten aged 1-5 years) and 22 to receive placebo (eight children aged 12-17 years, nine aged 6-11 years, and five aged 1-5 years). However, two patients assigned to receive eltrombopag did not receive the study drug and one was lost to follow-up, and one patient assigned to receive placebo was given eltrombopag. From weeks 1 to 6, 28 (62%) patients who received eltrombopag, compared with seven (32%) who received placebo, achieved the primary endpoint of platelet count 50 x 10(9) per L or more at least once without rescue (odds ratio 431, 95% CI 139-1334, p=0011). The most common adverse events with eltrombopag were headache (13 [30%] patients receiving eltrombopag vs nine [43%] patients receiving placebo), upper respiratory tract infection (11 [25%] patients vs two [10%] patients), and diarrhoea (seven [16%] patients vs one [5%] patient). Grade 3 or 4 adverse events occurred in five (11%) patients receiving eltrombopag and four (19%) patients receiving placebo, and serious adverse events (four [9%] patients receiving eltrombopag and two (10%) patients receiving placebo) w
Anti-D (WinRho SD) treatment of children with chronic autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura stimulates transient cytokine/chemokine production
American Journal of Hematology. 2002;69((3):):225-7.
Intravenous anti-D is often used in the treatment of autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura (AITP), but little is known about its mechanisms of action. To investigate anti-D's potential in vivo mechanism(s) of action, a small group (N = 7) of children with chronic AITP was studied. The children initially received either 25 or 50 microg/kg of WinRho-SD in a four-cycle cross-over trial, and peripheral blood samples from the first and third cycles were assessed for cytokine levels at pre-treatment, 3 hr, 1 day, and 8 days post-treatment. Results showed that platelet counts significantly increased in all the children by day 8 post-treatment. Analysis of serum by ELISA showed that there was a significant but transient rise in both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine levels (e.g., IL1RA, IL6, GM-CSF, MCP-1 alpha, TNF-alpha and MCP-1) by 3 hr post-treatment in both cycles which returned to baseline levels by 8 days post-treatment. These results suggest that anti-D administration may initially activate the RES in the form of cytokine/chemokine secretion, which is subsequently followed by an increase in platelet counts. It is possible that the induced cytokine/chemokine storm may have an effect on several physiological processes such as those mediating either adverse effects or potentially RES phagocytic activity.
A trial of desmopressin to reduce blood loss in patients undergoing spinal fusion for idiopathic scoliosis
Anesthesia & Analgesia. 1992;75((3):):405-10.
Desmopressin (DDAVP) has been reported to reduce bleeding in patients undergoing spinal fusion. To evaluate its efficacy in normal patients, 30 healthy young patients (ASA physical status I or II) undergoing spinal fusion for idiopathic scoliosis were randomly allocated to receive either 100 mL of physiologic saline solution (placebo group) or DDAVP (10 micrograms/m2 of body surface area) (DDAVP group) in a prospective, double-blind trial. Intraoperative blood loss was measured by weighing sponges and suction drainage and postoperative bleeding by wound drainage. The amount of blood loss expressed as a percent of the estimated blood volume was similar in both groups during the intraoperative period (67.0% +/- 28.8% [mean +/- SD] placebo group vs 57.4% +/- 26.5% DDAVP group), the postoperative period up to 24 h (32.5% +/- 6.4% placebo group vs 31.1% +/- 10.6% DDAVP group), and both periods (94.3% +/- 29.4% placebo group vs 88.2% +/- 30.7% DDAVP group). With the dose used in our study, we conclude that DDAVP does not reduce surgical bleeding in patients undergoing spinal fusion for idiopathic scoliosis.