Tranexamic acid and reduction of blood transfusion in lower limb trauma surgery: a randomized controlled study
INTRODUCTION Post-operative blood loss in lower limb trauma fractures increases morbidity. Very few studies have evaluated the efficacy of Tranexamic Acid (TXA) in reducing blood loss and the consequent requirement of blood transfusion in the Indian population. METHODS This was a randomized controlled study of 100 patients with lower limb trauma. Fifty patients were given 1 g of TXA before surgery, and 50 patients were not given TXA. The requirement of blood transfusion, fall in Hb, the number of days admitted in the hospital after surgery were recorded, and evidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) was monitored. RESULTS Baseline demographics between the groups were comparable. The required blood transfusion and fall in Hb in patients receiving intra-operative TXA were significantly lower than those not given TXA (p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in the length of hospital stay between the two groups (p = 0.6). There was no significant difference in the incidence of DVT in both groups. DISCUSSION TXA helps reduce the morbidity of trauma patients by reducing the requirement for blood transfusion. Its use is safe in lower limb trauma surgery and lowers the cost of therapy to the patient.