Diagnostic accuracy of dual-energy computed tomography to differentiate intracerebral hemorrhage from contrast extravasation after endovascular thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke: systematic review and meta-analysis
European radiology. 2021
OBJECTIVES To assess whether dual-energy computed tomography (DECT), using conventional computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging as a reference standard, is sufficiently accurate to differentiate intracerebral hemorrhage from contrast extravasation after endovascular thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke. METHODS On January 20, 2021, we searched the PubMed Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases. QUADAS-2 was used to assess the risk of bias and applicability. Meta-analyses were performed using a bivariate random-effects model. To explore sources of heterogeneity, meta-regression analyses were performed. Deeks' funnel plot asymmetry test was used to assess publication bias. RESULTS A total of 7 studies (269 patients, 269 focal areas) were included. The pooled mean sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of DECT in identifying intracerebral hemorrhage from contrast extravasation after mechanical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke were 0.77 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.29 to 0.96), 1 (95% CI 0.86 to 1), and 0.99 (95% CI 0.98 to 1), respectively. This evidence was of moderate certainty due to the risk of bias. Higgin's I-squared for study heterogeneity was observed for the pooled sensitivity (I(2) = 78.88%) and pooled specificity (I(2) = 82.12%). Moreover, Deeks' funnel plot asymmetry test revealed no publication bias (p = 0.38). CONCLUSION DECT shows excellent accuracy and specificity in differentiating intracerebral hemorrhage from contrast extravasation after endovascular thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke. Nevertheless, there was substantial and moderate heterogeneity among the studies. Future large-scale, prospective cohort studies are warranted to validate our findings. KEY POINTS • Dual-energy computed tomography shows excellent accuracy and specificity in differentiating intracerebral hemorrhage from contrast extravasation after endovascular thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke. • Via meta-regression analysis, we found various possible covariates, including the publication date, image analysis, index test time, time of follow-up imaging, and reference standard judgment, that had an important effect on the heterogeneity. • There were no concerns regarding applicability in any of the included studies.
Red blood cell transfusion threshold after pediatric cardiac surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis
BACKGROUND Restrictive red blood cell transfusion strategy is implemented to minimize risk following allogeneic blood transfusion in adult cardiac surgery. However, it is still unclear if it can be applied to pediatric cardiac patients. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the effect of postoperative restrictive transfusion thresholds on clinical outcomes based on up-to-date results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies in pediatric cardiac surgery. METHOD We searched for RCTs and observational studies in the following databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and ClinicalTrials.gov from their inception to October 26, 2017. We also searched reference lists of published guidelines, reviews, and relevant articles, as well as conference proceedings. No language restrictions were applied and no observational study met the inclusion criteria. RESULTS Four RCTs on cardiac surgery involving 454 patients were included. There were no differences in the pooled fixed effects of intensive care unit (ICU) stay between the liberal and restrictive transfusion thresholds (standardized mean difference SMD, 0.007; 95% confidence interval CI, -0.18-0.19; P = .94). There were also no differences in the length of hospital stay (SMD, -0.062; 95% CI, -0.28-0.15; P = .57), ventilation duration (SMD, -0.015; 95% CI, -0.25-0.22; P = .90), mean arterial lactate level (SMD, 0.071; 95% CI, -0.22-0.36; P = .63), and mortality (risk ratio, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.13-1.94; P = .31). There was no inter-trial heterogeneity for any pooled analysis. Publication bias was tested using Egger, Begg, or the trim-and-fill test, and the results indicated no significant publication bias. CONCLUSION Evidence from RCTs in pediatric cardiac surgery, though limited, showed non-inferiority of restrictive thresholds over liberal thresholds in length of ICU stay and other outcomes following red blood cell transfusion. Further high-quality RCTs are necessary to confirm the findings.