Tranexamic acid is not inferior to placebo with respect to adverse events in supected tbi patients not in shock with a normal head ct: A retrospective study of a randomized trial
Harmer J, Dewey EN, Meier EN, Rowell SE, Schreiber MA
The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 2022
BACKGROUND A 2-gram bolus of tranexamic acid (TXA) has been shown to reduce 28-day mortality in a RCT. This study investigates whether out-of-hospital TXA use is associated with adverse events or unfavorable outcomes in suspected TBI when intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is absent on initial CT. METHODS This study utilized data from a 2015-2017, multicenter, randomized trial studying the effect of the following TXA doses on moderate to severe TBI: 2-gram bolus, 1-gram bolus plus 1-gram infusion over 8 hours, and a placebo bolus with placebo infusion. Of the 966 participants enrolled, 395 with an initial CT negative for ICH were included in this analysis. Fifteen adverse events (28-day incidence) were studied: MI, DVT, seizure, pulmonary embolism, ARDS, cardiac failure, liver failure, renal failure, CVA, cardiac arrest, cerebral vasospasm, "any thromboembolism", hypernatremia, AKI, and infection. Other unfavorable outcomes analyzed include mortality at 28 days & 6 months, GOSE ≤4 at discharge & 6 months, ICU-free days, ventilator-free days, hospital-free days, and combined unfavorable outcomes. In both study drug groups the incidence of dichotomous outcomes and quantity of ordinal outcomes were compared to placebo. RESULTS No statistically significant increase in adverse events or unfavorable outcomes was found between either TXA dosing regimen and placebo. Demographics and injury scores were not statistically different other than two methods of injury which were overrepresented in the 1-gram TXA bolus +1-gram TXA infusion. CONCLUSIONS Administration of either a 2-gram TXA bolus or a 1-gram TXA bolus plus 1-gram TXA 8-hour infusion in suspected-TBIs without ICH is not associated with increased adverse events or unfavorable outcomes. Because the out-of-hospital 2-gram bolus is associated with a mortality benefit it should be administered in suspected-TBI. LEVELS OF EVIDENCE Level II, Therapeutic.