Impact of Platelet-Rich Plasma Use on Pain in Orthopaedic Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Sports health. 2019;:1941738119834972
CONTEXT Amid extensive debate, evidence surrounding the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for musculoskeletal injuries has rapidly proliferated, and an overall assessment of efficacy of PRP across orthopaedic indications is required. OBJECTIVES (1) Does PRP improve patient-reported pain in musculoskeletal conditions? and (2) Do PRP characteristics influence its treatment effect? DATA SOURCES MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science libraries were searched through February 8, 2017. Additional studies were identified from reviews, trial registries, and recent conferences. STUDY SELECTION All English-language randomized trials comparing platelet-rich therapy with a control in patients 18 years or older with musculoskeletal bone, cartilage, or soft tissue injuries treated either conservatively or surgically were included. Substudies of previously reported trials or abstracts and conference proceedings that lacked sufficient information to generate estimates of effect for the primary outcome were excluded. STUDY DESIGN Systematic review and meta-analysis. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Level 1. DATA EXTRACTION All data were reviewed and extracted independently by 3 reviewers. Agreement was high between reviewers with regard to included studies. RESULTS A total of 78 randomized controlled trials (5308 patients) were included. A standardized mean difference (SMD) of 0.5 was established as the minimum for a clinically significant reduction in pain. A reduction in pain was associated with PRP at 3 months (SMD, -0.34; 95% CI, -0.48 to -0.20) and sustained until 1 year (SMD, -0.60; 95% CI, -0.81 to -0.39). Low- to moderate-quality evidence supports a reduction in pain for lateral epicondylitis (SMD, -0.69; 95% CI, -1.15 to -0.23) and knee osteoarthritis (SMD, -0.91; 95% CI, -1.41 to -0.41) at 1 year. PRP characteristics did not influence results. CONCLUSION PRP leads to a reduction in pain; however, evidence for clinically significant efficacy is limited. Available evidence supports the use of PRP in the management of lateral epicondylitis as well as knee osteoarthritis.
Treatment with platelet-rich plasma is more effective than placebo for knee osteoarthritis: a prospective, double-blind, randomized trial
American Journal of Sports Medicine. 2013;41((2):):356-64.
BACKGROUND Specific growth factors have been proposed as therapeutic proteins for cartilage repair. HYPOTHESIS Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) provides symptomatic relief in early osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. STUDY DESIGN Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. METHODS A total of 78 patients (156 knees) with bilateral OA were divided randomly into 3 groups. Group A (52 knees) received a single injection of PRP, group B (50 knees) received 2 injections of PRP 3 weeks apart, and group C (46 knees) received a single injection of normal saline. White blood cell (WBC)-filtered PRP with a platelet count 3 times that of baseline (PRP type 4B) was administered in all. All the groups were homogeneous and comparable in baseline characteristics. Clinical outcome was evaluated using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire before treatment and at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after treatment. They were also evaluated for pain by a visual analog scale, and overall satisfaction with the procedure and complications were noted. RESULTS Statistically significant improvement in all WOMAC parameters was noted in groups A and B within 2 to 3 weeks and lasting until the final follow-up at 6 months, with slight worsening at the 6-month follow-up. The mean WOMAC scores (pain, stiffness, physical function, and total score) for group A at baseline were 10.18, 3.12, 36.56, and 49.86, respectively, and at final follow-up were 5.00, 2.10, 20.08, and 27.18, respectively, showing significant improvement. Similar improvement was noted in group B (mean WOMAC scores at baseline: 10.62, 3.50, 39.10, and 53.20, respectively; mean WOMAC scores at final follow-up: 6.18, 1.88, 22.40, and 30.48, respectively). In group C, the mean WOMAC scores deteriorated from baseline (9.04, 2.70, 33.80, and 45.54, respectively) to final follow-up (10.87, 2.76, 39.46, and 53.09, respectively). The 3 groups were compared with each other, and no improvement was noted in group C as compared with groups A and B (P < .001). There was no difference between groups A and B, and there was no influence of age, sex, weight, or body mass index on the outcome. Knees with Ahlback grade 1 fared better than those with grade 2. Mild complications such as nausea and dizziness, which were of short duration, were observed in 6 patients (22.2%) in group A and 11 patients (44%) in group B. CONCLUSION A single dose of WBC-filtered PRP in concentrations of 10 times the normal amount is as effective as 2 injections to alleviate symptoms in early knee OA. The results, however, deteriorate after 6 months. Both groups treated with PRP had better results than did the group injected with saline only.