Patients aged 16 years old or older with trauma-related haemorrhagic shock enrolled in the resuscitation with pre-hospital blood products (RePHILL) trial, based across four UK prehospital critical care services (n= 432).
Packed red blood cells and lyophilised plasma (PRBC-LyoPlas, n= 209).
Sodium chloride (n= 223).
The primary outcome was a composite of episode mortality or impaired lactate clearance, or both, measured in the intention-to-treat population. The composite primary outcome occurred in 128 (64%) of 199 patients receiving PRBC-LyoPlas and 136 (65%) of 210 receiving sodium chloride. The rates of transfusion-related complications in the first 24 hours after emergency department arrival were similar (PRBC-LyoPlas eleven (7%) of 148 compared with sodium chloride nine (7%) of 137). Serious adverse events included acute respiratory distress syndrome in nine (6%) of 142 patients in the PRBC-LyoPlas group and three (2%) of 130 in the sodium chloride group, and two other unexpected serious adverse events, one in the PRBC-LyoPlas (cerebral infarct) and one in the sodium chloride group (abnormal liver function test). There were no treatment-related deaths.