Prehospital Blood Product and Crystalloid Resuscitation in the Severely Injured Patient: A Secondary Analysis of the Prehospital Air Medical Plasma Trial
Annals of surgery. 2019
MINI: Hemorrhage is the primary cause of preventable trauma death. Secondary analyses of scene patients from the PAMPer trial demonstrated that prehospital packed red blood cell and plasma had the greatest reduction in 30-day mortality compared with crystalloid-only resuscitation. Patients with hemorrhagic shock should receive prehospital blood products when available, preferably packed red blood cell and plasma. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to determine whether prehospital blood products reduce 30-day mortality in patients at risk for hemorrhagic shock compared with crystalloid only resuscitation. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA Hemorrhage is the primary cause of preventable death after injury. Large volume crystalloid resuscitation can be deleterious. The benefits of prehospital packed red blood cells (PRBCs), plasma, or transfusion of both products among trauma patients is unknown compared with crystalloid. METHODS Secondary analysis of the multicenter PAMPer trial was performed on hypotensive injured patients from the scene. The trial randomized 27 helicopter bases to prehospital plasma or standard resuscitation. Standard resuscitation at the sites was equally divided between crystalloid and crystalloid + PRBC. This led to 4 prehospital resuscitation groups: crystalloid only; PRBC; plasma; and PRBC+plasma. Cox regression determined the association between resuscitation groups and risk-adjusted 30-day mortality. The dose effect of resuscitation fluids was also explored. RESULTS Four hundred seven patients were included. PRBC+plasma had the greatest benefit [hazard ratio (HR) 0.38; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.26-0.55, P < 0.001], followed by plasma (HR 0.57; 95% CI 0.36-0.91, P = 0.017) and PRBC (HR 0.68; 95% CI 0.49-0.95, P = 0.025) versus crystalloid only. Mortality was lower per-unit of PRBC (HR 0.69; 95% CI 0.52-0.92, p = 0.009) and plasma (HR 0.68; 95% CI 0.54-0.88, P = 0.003). Crystalloid volume was associated with increased mortality among patients receiving blood products (HR 1.65; 95% CI 1.17-2.32, P = 0.004). CONCLUSION Patients receiving prehospital PRBC+plasma had the greatest mortality benefit. Crystalloid only had the worst survival. Patients with hemorrhagic shock should receive prehospital blood products when available, preferably PRBC+plasma. Prehospital whole blood may be ideal in this population.
Prehospital Plasma during Air Medical Transport in Trauma Patients at Risk for Hemorrhagic Shock
The New England Journal of Medicine. 2018;379((4)):315-326.
BACKGROUND After a person has been injured, prehospital administration of plasma in addition to the initiation of standard resuscitation procedures in the prehospital environment may reduce the risk of downstream complications from hemorrhage and shock. Data from large clinical trials are lacking to show either the efficacy or the risks associated with plasma transfusion in the prehospital setting. METHODS To determine the efficacy and safety of prehospital administration of thawed plasma in injured patients who are at risk for hemorrhagic shock, we conducted a pragmatic, multicenter, cluster-randomized, phase 3 superiority trial that compared the administration of thawed plasma with standard-care resuscitation during air medical transport. The primary outcome was mortality at 30 days. RESULTS A total of 501 patients were evaluated: 230 patients received plasma (plasma group) and 271 received standard-care resuscitation (standard-care group). Mortality at 30 days was significantly lower in the plasma group than in the standard-care group (23.2% vs. 33.0%; difference, -9.8 percentage points; 95% confidence interval, -18.6 to -1.0%; P=0.03). A similar treatment effect was observed across nine prespecified subgroups (heterogeneity chi-square test, 12.21; P=0.79). Kaplan-Meier curves showed an early separation of the two treatment groups that began 3 hours after randomization and persisted until 30 days after randomization (log-rank chi-square test, 5.70; P=0.02). The median prothrombin-time ratio was lower in the plasma group than in the standard-care group (1.2 [interquartile range, 1.1 to 1.4] vs. 1.3 [interquartile range, 1.1 to 1.6], P<0.001) after the patients' arrival at the trauma center. No significant differences between the two groups were noted with respect to multiorgan failure, acute lung injury-acute respiratory distress syndrome, nosocomial infections, or allergic or transfusion-related reactions. CONCLUSIONS In injured patients at risk for hemorrhagic shock, the prehospital administration of thawed plasma was safe and resulted in lower 30-day mortality and a lower median prothrombin-time ratio than standard-care resuscitation. (Funded by the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command; PAMPer ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01818427 .).
Human polymerized hemoglobin for the treatment of hemorrhagic shock when blood is unavailable: the USA multicenter trial
Journal of the American College of Surgeons. 2009;208((1):):1-13.
BACKGROUND Human polymerized hemoglobin (PolyHeme, Northfield Laboratories) is a universally compatible oxygen carrier developed to treat life-threatening anemia. This multicenter phase III trial was the first US study to assess survival of patients resuscitated with a hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier starting at the scene of injury. STUDY DESIGN Injured patients with a systolic blood pressure≤90 mmHg were randomized to receive field resuscitation with PolyHeme or crystalloid. Study patients continued to receive up to 6 U of PolyHeme during the first 12 hours postinjury before receiving blood. Control patients received blood on arrival in the trauma center. This trial was conducted as a dual superiority/noninferiority primary end point. RESULTS Seven hundred fourteen patients were enrolled at 29 urban Level I trauma centers (79% men; mean age 37. 1 years). Injury mechanism was blunt trauma in 48%, and median transport time was 26 minutes. There was no significant difference between day 30 mortality in the as-randomized (13. 4% PolyHeme versus 9. 6% control) or per-protocol (11. 1% PolyHeme versus 9. 3% control) cohorts. Allogeneic blood use was lower in the PolyHeme group (68% versus 50% in the first 12 hours). The incidence of multiple organ failure was similar (7. 4% PolyHeme versus 5. 5% control). Adverse events (93% versus 88%; p=0. 04) and serious adverse events (40% versus 35%; p=0. 12), as anticipated, were frequent in the PolyHeme and control groups, respectively. Although myocardial infarction was reported by the investigators more frequently in the PolyHeme group (3% PolyHeme versus 1% control), a blinded committee of experts reviewed records of all enrolled patients and found no discernable difference between groups. CONCLUSIONS Patients resuscitated with PolyHeme, without stored blood for up to 6 U in 12 hours postinjury, had outcomes comparable with those for the standard of care. Although there were more adverse events in the PolyHeme group, the benefit-to-risk ratio of PolyHeme is favorable when blood is needed but not available.