Intravenous iron to treat anaemia following critical care: a multicentre feasibility randomised trial
British journal of anaesthesia. 2021
BACKGROUND Anaemia is common and associated with poor outcomes in survivors of critical illness. However, the optimal treatment strategy is unclear. METHODS We conducted a multicentre, feasibility RCT to compare either a single dose of ferric carboxymaltose 1000 mg i.v. or usual care in patients being discharged from the ICU with moderate or severe anaemia (haemoglobin ≤100 g L(-1)). We collected data on feasibility (recruitment, randomisation, follow-up), biological efficacy, and clinical outcomes. RESULTS Ninety-eight participants were randomly allocated (49 in each arm). The overall recruitment rate was 34% with 6.5 participants recruited on average per month. Forty-seven of 49 (96%) participants received the intervention. Patient-reported outcome measures were available for 79/93 (85%) survivors at 90 days. Intravenous iron resulted in a higher mean (standard deviation [sd]) haemoglobin at 28 days (119.8 [13.3] vs 106.7 [14.9] g L(-1)) and 90 days (130.5 [15.1] vs 122.7 [17.3] g L(-1)), adjusted mean difference (10.98 g L(-1); 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.96-17.01; P<0.001) over 90 days after randomisation. Infection rates were similar in both groups. Hospital readmissions at 90 days post-ICU discharge were lower in the i.v. iron group (7/40 vs 15/39; risk ratio=0.46; 95% CI, 0.21-0.99; P=0.037). The median (inter-quartile range) post-ICU hospital stay was shorter in the i.v. iron group but did not reach statistical significance (5.0 [3.0-13.0] vs 9.0 [5.0-16.0] days, P=0.15). CONCLUSION A large, multicentre RCT of i.v. iron to treat anaemia in survivors of critical illness appears feasible and is necessary to determine the effects on patient-centred outcomes. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION ISRCTN13721808 (www.isrctn.com).
Platelet rich plasma injection for acute Achilles tendon rupture: PATH-2 randomised, placebo controlled, superiority trial
Patients being discharged from the intensive care unit (ICU) with moderate or severe anaemia (n= 98).
Single dose of ferric carboxymaltose (n= 49).
Usual care (n= 49).
Patient-reported outcome measures were available for 85% survivors at 90 days. Intravenous iron resulted in a higher mean (standard deviation [sd]) haemoglobin at 28 days (119.8 [13.3] vs. 106.7 [14.9] g L(-1)) and 90 days (130.5 [15.1] vs. 122.7 [17.3] g L(-1)), adjusted mean difference (10.98 g L(-1)) over 90 days after randomisation. Infection rates were similar in both groups. Hospital readmissions at 90 days post-ICU discharge were lower in the intravenous iron group (7/40 vs. 15/39). The median (inter-quartile range) post-ICU hospital stay was shorter in the intravenous iron group but did not reach statistical significance (5.0 [3.0-13.0] vs. 9.0 [5.0-16.0]) days.
BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 2019;367:l6132
OBJECTIVE To determine whether an injection of platelet rich plasma improves outcomes after acute Achilles tendon rupture. DESIGN Randomised, placebo controlled, two arm, parallel group, participant and assessor masked, superiority trial. SETTING Secondary care trauma units across 19 hospitals in the United Kingdom's health service. PARTICIPANTS Recruitment commenced in July 2015 and follow-up was completed in March 2018. 230 adults aged 18 years and over were included, with acute Achilles tendon rupture presenting within 12 days of injury and managed with non-surgical treatment. Exclusions were injury at the insertion or musculotendinous junction, major leg injury or deformity, diabetes mellitus, platelet or haematological disorder, systemic corticosteroids, anticoagulation treatment, and other contraindicating conditions. INTERVENTIONS Participants were randomised 1:1 to platelet rich plasma (n=114) or placebo (dry needle; n=116) injection. All participants received standard rehabilitation care (ankle immobilisation followed by physiotherapy). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Primary outcome was muscle tendon function at 24 weeks, measured objectively with the limb symmetry index (injured/uninjuredx100) in maximal work done during the heel rise endurance test (an instrumented measure of repeated single leg heel rises until fatigue). Secondary outcomes included patient reported function (Achilles tendon rupture score), quality of life (short form 12 version 2(R)), pain (visual analogue scale), goal attainment (patient specific functional scale), and adverse events. A central laboratory analysed the quality and content of platelet rich plasma. Analyses were by modified intention to treat. RESULTS Participants were 46 years old on average, and 57 (25%) of 230 were female. At 24 weeks, 202 (88%) participants completed the heel rise endurance test and 216 (94%) the patient reported outcomes. The platelet rich plasma was of good quality, with expected growth factor content. No difference was detected in muscle tendon function between participants receiving platelet rich plasma injections and those receiving placebo injections (limb symmetry index, mean 34.7% (standard deviation 17.7%) v 38.5% (22.8%); adjusted mean difference -3.9% (95% confidence interval -10.5% to 2.7%)) or in any secondary outcomes or adverse event rates. Complier average causal effect analyses gave similar findings. CONCLUSIONS There is no evidence to indicate that injections of platelet rich plasma can improve objective muscle tendon function, patient reported function, or quality of life after acute Achilles tendon rupture compared with placebo, or that they offer any patient benefit. TRIAL REGISTRATION ISRCTN54992179.