Intravenous tranexamic acid reduce postoperative drainage and pain after open elbow arthrolysis: A randomized controlled trial
Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery. 2021
BACKGROUND Open elbow arthrolysis (OEA), which has become an established treatment for post-traumatic elbow stiffness (PTES), requires complete release of contracture tissue and wide excision of ectopic bone, which results in extensive bleeding. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of intravenous tranexamic acid (TXA) on postoperative drainage, calculated blood loss and early clinical outcomes in patients undergoing OEA. METHODS A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial including 96 patients undergoing OEA was undertaken. Patients received intravenously either 100 mL saline (placebo group, n = 48), or 100 mL saline plus 1 g TXA (TXA group, n = 48) before skin incision. The primary outcome was the drainage volume on postoperative day (POD) 1 to 3. Secondary outcomes included the calculated blood loss, elbow pain score measured by Visual Analog Scale (VAS), elbow function valued by Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS), and rate of complications after OEA. RESULTS Mean total postoperative drainage volume (TXA group: 182 mL vs. placebo group: 214 mL, p = 0.003) and mean calculated total blood loss (TXA group: 582 mL vs. placebo group: 657 mL, p = 0.004) were significantly lower in the TXA group. No transfusions were necessary in either group. Mean VAS pain scores in elbow motion showed marked differences between both groups on POD 1 (TXA: 5 vs. placebo: 6, p = 0.003) and POD 2 (TXA: 4 vs. placebo: 5, p = 0.023), but not in other postoperative time points. No differences were detected in complications, such as pin-related infection, hematoma, new or exacerbation of ulnar nerve symptoms, and recurrent heterotopic ossification. At the 6-month follow-up, no statistical differences were found between the two groups with respect to the elbow functions including range of motion, VAS score and MEPS. CONCLUSION Intravenous administration of TXA significantly decreased the postoperative drainage volume and the total estimated blood loss, and alleviated the elbow pain with motion during early postoperative days in patients undergoing OEA. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Level I; Randomized Controlled Trial; Treatment Study.
Low-dose PPI to prevent bleeding after ESD: A multicenter randomized controlled study
Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie. 2021;136:111251
BACKGROUND Although proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely used in the prevention of gastric bleeding caused by endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), there is no consensus on the optimal regimen for these patients. Therefore, we aim to investigate whether intermittent use of low-dose PPI is sufficient to prevent post-ESD bleeding. METHODS This multicenter, non-inferiority, randomized controlled trial was conducted at 9 hospitals in China. Consecutive eligible patients with a diagnosis of gastric mucosal lesions after ESD treatment were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either intermittent low-dose or continuous high-dose PPIs treatment. After three days, all patients administered orally esomeprazole 40 mg once a day for 8 weeks. The primary endpoint was post-ESD bleeding within 7 days. Analysis was done according to the intention-to-treat principle with the non-inferiority margin (Δ) of 5%. RESULTS 526 consecutive patients were assessed for eligibility from 30 September 2017 to 30 July 2019, of whom 414 were randomly assigned to low-dose (n = 209) or high-dose (n = 205) esomeprazole treatment group without dropouts within7 days. The total post-ESD bleeding is occurred in 13 (6.2 %, 95 % CI 3.3-9.6) of 209 within 7 days in the intermittent low-dose group, and 12 (5.9 %, 95 % CI 2.9-9.3) of 205 in the continuous high-dose group. The absolute risk reduction (ARR) was 0.4 % (-4.2, 4.9). One month after ESD, There are 44 patients (21.1 %, 95 % CI 15.8, 26.8) and 39 patients (19.0 % 95 % CI 13.7, 24.4) in scar stage respectively in low-dose group and high-dose group (P = 0.875).The hospital costs in the low-dose PPI group was lower than high -dose group (P = 0.005). CONCLUSION The intermittent use of low-dose PPIs is sufficient to prevent post-ESD bleeding. It might be applied in clinical practice to prevent post-ESD bleeding and reduce the costs related to PPIs.