How outcomes are measured after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: A systematic scoping review
PloS one. 2021;16(6):e0253964
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Recovery after intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is often slower than ischemic stroke. Despite this, ICH research often quantifies recovery using the same outcome measures obtained at the same timepoints as ischemic stroke. The primary objective of this scoping review is to map the existing literature to determine when and how outcomes are being measured in prospective studies of recovery after ICH. METHODS We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Web of Science from inception to November 2019, for prospective studies that included patients with ICH. Two investigators independently screened the studies and extracted data around timing and type of outcome assessment. RESULTS Among the 9761 manuscripts reviewed, 395 met inclusion criteria, of which 276 were observational studies and 129 were interventional studies that enrolled 66274 patients. Mortality was assessed in 93% of studies. Functional outcomes were assessed in 85% of studies. The most frequently used functional assessment tool was the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) (60%), followed by the National Institute of Health Stroke Severity Scale (22%) and Barthel Index (21%). The most frequent timepoint at which mortality was assessed was 90 days (41%), followed by 180 days (18%) and 365 days (12%), with 2% beyond 1 year. The most frequent timepoint used for assessing mRS was 90 days (62%), followed by 180 days (21%) and 365 days (17%). CONCLUSION While most prospective ICH studies report mortality and functional outcomes only at 90 days, a significant proportion do so at 1 year and beyond. Our results support the feasibility of collecting long-term outcome data to optimally assess recovery in ICH.
Lack of Cost-Effectiveness of Preoperative Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents and/or Iron Therapy in Anaemic, Elective Surgery Patients: A Systematic Review and Updated Analysis
OBJECTIVES For anaemic elective surgery patients, current clinical practice guidelines weakly recommend the routine use of iron, but not erythrocyte-stimulating agents (ESAs), except for short-acting ESAs in major orthopaedic surgery. This recommendation is, however, not based on any cost-effectiveness studies. The aim of this research was to (1) systematically review the literature regarding cost effectiveness of preoperative iron and/or ESAs in anaemic, elective surgery patients and (2) update existing economic evaluations (EEs) with recent data. METHODS Eight databases and registries were searched for EEs and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting cost-effectiveness data on November 11, 2020. Data were extracted, narratively synthesized and critically appraised using the Philips reporting checklist. Pre-existing full EEs were updated with effectiveness data from a recent systematic review and current cost data. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were expressed as cost per (quality-adjusted) life-year [(QA)LY] gained. RESULTS Only five studies (4 EEs and 1 RCT) were included, one on intravenous iron and four on ESAs + oral iron. The EE on intravenous iron only had an in-hospital time horizon. Therefore, cost effectiveness of preoperative iron remains uncertain. The three EEs on ESAs had a lifetime time horizon, but reported cost per (QA)LY gained of 20-65 million (GBP or CAD). Updating these analyses with current data confirmed ESAs to have a cost per (QA)LY gained of 3.5-120 million (GBP or CAD). CONCLUSIONS Cost effectiveness of preoperative iron is unproven, whereas routine preoperative ESA therapy cannot be considered cost effective in elective surgery, based on the limited available data. Future guidelines should reflect these findings.
Elective surgery patients with anaemia (5 studies).
Erythrocyte-stimulating agents (ESAs) and oral iron.
The economic evaluation on intravenous iron only had an in-hospital time horizon. Cost effectiveness of preoperative iron remained uncertain. The three economic evaluations on ESAs had a lifetime time horizon, but reported cost per (QA)LY gained of 20-65 million (GBP or CAD). Updating these analyses with current data confirmed ESAs to have a cost per (QA)LY gained of 3.5-120 million (GBP or CAD).
A multi-centre study comparing granulocyte-colony stimulating factors to antibiotics for primary prophylaxis of docetaxel-cyclophosphamide induced febrile neutropenia
Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland). 2021;58:42-49
BACKGROUND Primary febrile neutropenia (FN) prophylaxis with ciprofloxacin or granulocyte-colony stimulating factors (G-CSF) is recommended with docetaxel-cyclophosphamide (TC) chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer (EBC). A pragmatic randomised trial compared the superiority of G-CSF to ciprofloxacin and a cost-utility analysis were conducted. METHODS EBC patients receiving TC chemotherapy were randomised to ciprofloxacin or G-CSF. The primary outcome was a composite of FN and non-FN treatment-related hospitalisation. Secondary outcomes included; rates of FN, non-FN treatment-related hospitalisation, chemotherapy dose reductions/delays/discontinuations. Primary analysis was performed with the intention to treat population. Cost-utility analyses were conducted from the Canadian public payer perspective. RESULTS 458 eligible patients were randomised: 228 to ciprofloxacin and 230 to G-CSF. For the primary endpoint there was non-statistically significant difference (Risk difference = -6.7%, 95%CI = -13.5%-0.1%, p = 0.061) between ciprofloxacin patients (46,20.2%) and G-CSF (31,13.5%). Patients receiving ciprofloxacin were more likely to experience FN (36/228, 15.8% vs 13/230, 5.7%) than patients receiving G-CSF (p < 0.001). Non-FN treatment-related hospitalisation occurred in 40/228 (17.5%) of ciprofloxacin patients vs 28/230 (12.2%) of G-CSF patients (p = 0.12). There were no differences in other secondary outcomes. G-CSF was associated with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of C$1,760,796 per one quality-adjusted life year gained. CONCLUSION The primary endpoint of superiority of G-CSF over ciprofloxacin was not demonstrated. While there were reduced FN rates with G-CSF, there were no differences in chemotherapy dose delays/reductions or discontinuations. With the commonly used willingness to pay value of C$50,000/QALY, G-CSF use was not cost-effective compared to ciprofloxacin and deserves scrutiny from the payer perspective.
Liberal Versus Restrictive Red Blood Cell Transfusion Thresholds in Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: A Randomized, Open Label, Phase III, Noninferiority Trial
Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2020;:Jco1901836
PURPOSE Evidence regarding red blood cell (RBC) transfusion practices and their impact on hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) outcomes are poorly understood. PATIENTS AND METHODS We performed a noninferiority randomized controlled trial in four different centers that evaluated patients with hematologic malignancies requiring HCT who were randomly assigned to either a restrictive (hemoglobin [Hb] threshold < 70 g/L) or liberal (Hb threshold < 90 g/L) RBC transfusion strategy between day 0 and day 100. The noninferiority margin corresponds to a 12% absolute difference between groups in Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Bone Marrow Transplant (FACT-BMT) score relative to baseline. The primary outcome was health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measured by FACT-BMT score at day 100. Additional end points were collected: HRQOL by FACT-BMT score at baseline and at days 7, 14, 28, 60, and 100; transplantation-related mortality; length of hospital stay; intensive care unit admissions; acute graft-versus-host disease; Bearman toxicity score; sinusoidal obstruction syndrome; serious infections; WHO Bleeding Scale; transfusion requirements; and reactions to therapy. RESULTS A total of 300 patients were randomly assigned to either restrictive-strategy or liberal-strategy treatment groups between 2011 and 2016 at four Canadian adult HCT centers. After HCT, mean pre-transfusion Hb levels were 70.9 g/L in the restrictive-strategy group and 84.6 g/L in the liberal-strategy group (P < .0001). The number of RBC units transfused was lower in the restrictive-strategy group than in the liberal-strategy group (mean, 2.73 units [standard deviation, 4.81 units] v 5.02 units [standard deviation, 6.13 units]; P = .0004). After adjusting for transfusion type and baseline FACT-BMT score, the restrictive-strategy group had a higher FACT-BMT score at day 100 (difference of 1.6 points; 95% CI, -2.5 to 5.6 points), which was noninferior compared with that of the liberal-strategy group. There were no significant differences in clinical outcomes between the transfusion strategies. CONCLUSION In patients undergoing HCT, the use of a restrictive RBC transfusion strategy threshold of 70 g/L was as effective as a threshold of 90 g/L and resulted in similar HRQOL and HCT outcomes with fewer transfusions.
Patients with hematologic malignancies requiring hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), (n=300).
Restrictive red blood cell transfusion (RBC) strategy (hemoglobin [Hb] threshold < 70 g/L).
Liberal RBC transfusion strategy (Hb threshold < 90 g/L).
After HCT, mean pre-transfusion Hb levels were 70.9 g/L in the restrictive-strategy group and 84.6 g/L in the liberal-strategy group. The number of RBC units transfused was lower in the restrictive-strategy group than in the liberal-strategy group (mean, 2.73 units v 5.02 units). After adjusting for transfusion type and baseline Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Bone Marrow Transplant (FACT-BMT) score, the restrictive-strategy group had a higher FACT-BMT score at day 100 (difference of 1.6 points), which was noninferior compared with that of the liberal-strategy group. There were no significant differences in clinical outcomes between the transfusion strategies.
Volume-dependent effect of stored red blood cells: A secondary analysis of the Age of Blood Evaluation trial
BACKGROUND An increased risk of complications, including death, has been associated with stored red blood cell (RBC) units in observational studies but not in randomized trials. We aimed to evaluate for volume-dependent effects attributable to length of RBC storage in a secondary analysis of the Age of Blood Evaluation (ABLE) trial. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS In the 2510 critically ill adults from the ABLE trial randomized to receive RBC units stored not more than 7 days or the oldest compatible RBC units, we estimated the hazard ratio (HR) for death by intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital discharge and by days 28, 90, and 180, within subgroups defined by the number of RBC units received. Extended Cox proportional hazards regression was used to model the HR. RESULTS A volume-dependent effect of storage age on survival was present for death by 90 and 180 days, but not earlier endpoints. The HR for death by 90 days was 0.55 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.11-0.98, fresh vs standard) after transfusion of 6 RBC units but 1.45 (95% CI, 1.06-1.98) after transfusion of 1 RBC unit. CONCLUSION In this exploratory analysis, volume-dependent effects related to RBC storage were documented in the ABLE trial. The harms associated with small volumes of fresh RBC units and large volumes of older RBC units should be further explored.
Effect of age of transfused red blood cells on neurologic outcome following traumatic brain injury (ABLE-tbi Study): a nested study of the Age of Blood Evaluation (ABLE) trial
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia. 2019;66(6):696-705
BACKGROUND Anemia is common in critically ill patients with traumatic brain injury, and often requires red blood cell transfusion. Studies suggest that prolonged storage causes lesions of the red blood cells, including a decreased ability to carry oxygen. Considering the susceptibility of the brain to hypoxemia, victims of traumatic brain injury may thus be more vulnerable to exposure to older red blood cells. METHODS Our study aimed to ascertain whether the administration of fresh red blood cells (seven days or less) results in a better neurologic outcome compared with standard red blood cells in critically ill patients with traumatic brain injury requiring transfusion. The Age of Blood Evaluation in traumatic brain injury (ABLE-tbi) study was a nested study within the ABLE study (ISRCTN44878718). Our primary outcome was the extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSe) at six months. RESULTS In the ABLE study, 217 subjects suffered a traumatic brain injury: 110 in the fresh group, and 107 in the standard group. In the fresh group, 68 (73.1%) of the patients had an unfavourable neurologic outcome (GOSe <= 4) compared with 60 (64.5%) in the standard group (P = 0.21). Using a sliding dichotomy approach, we observed no overall effect of fresh red blood cells on neurologic outcome (odds ratio [OR], 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72 to 2.50; P = 0.35) but observed differences across prognostic bands with a decreased odds of unfavourable outcome in patients with the best prognosis at baseline (OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.96; P = 0.04) but an increased odds in those with intermediate and worst baseline prognosis (OR, 5.88; 95% CI,1.66 to 20.81; P = 0.006; and OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 0.53 to 5.30; P = 0.38, respectively). CONCLUSION Overall, transfusion of fresh red blood cells was not associated with a better neurologic outcome at six months in critically ill patients with traumatic brain injury. Nevertheless, we cannot exclude a differential effect according to the patient baseline prognosis. TRIAL REGISTRATION ABLE study (ISRCTN44878718); registered 22 August, 2008.
Patient Blood Management: Recommendations From the 2018 Frankfurt Consensus Conference
Importance: Blood transfusion is one of the most frequently used therapies worldwide and is associated with benefits, risks, and costs. Objective: To develop a set of evidence-based recommendations for patient blood management (PBM) and for research. Evidence Review: The scientific committee developed 17 Population/Intervention/Comparison/Outcome (PICO) questions for red blood cell (RBC) transfusion in adult patients in 3 areas: preoperative anemia (3 questions), RBC transfusion thresholds (11 questions), and implementation of PBM programs (3 questions). These questions guided the literature search in 4 biomedical databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Transfusion Evidence Library), searched from inception to January 2018. Meta-analyses were conducted with the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) methodology and the Evidence-to-Decision framework by 3 panels including clinical and scientific experts, nurses, patient representatives, and methodologists, to develop clinical recommendations during a consensus conference in Frankfurt/Main, Germany, in April 2018. Findings: From 17607 literature citations associated with the 17 PICO questions, 145 studies, including 63 randomized clinical trials with 23143 patients and 82 observational studies with more than 4 million patients, were analyzed. For preoperative anemia, 4 clinical and 3 research recommendations were developed, including the strong recommendation to detect and manage anemia sufficiently early before major elective surgery. For RBC transfusion thresholds, 4 clinical and 6 research recommendations were developed, including 2 strong clinical recommendations for critically ill but clinically stable intensive care patients with or without septic shock (recommended threshold for RBC transfusion, hemoglobin concentration <7 g/dL) as well as for patients undergoing cardiac surgery (recommended threshold for RBC transfusion, hemoglobin concentration <7.5 g/dL). For implementation of PBM programs, 2 clinical and 3 research recommendations were developed, including recommendations to implement comprehensive PBM programs and to use electronic decision support systems (both conditional recommendations) to improve appropriate RBC utilization. Conclusions and Relevance: The 2018 PBM International Consensus Conference defined the current status of the PBM evidence base for practice and research purposes and established 10 clinical recommendations and 12 research recommendations for preoperative anemia, RBC transfusion thresholds for adults, and implementation of PBM programs. The relative paucity of strong evidence to answer many of the PICO questions supports the need for additional research and an international consensus for accepted definitions and hemoglobin thresholds, as well as clinically meaningful end points for multicenter trials.
The epidemiology of multicomponent blood transfusion: a systematic review
Transfusion medicine (Oxford, England). 2019
We performed a systematic review to describe the prevalence of multicomponent blood transfusion and, as a secondary objective, to determine patient characteristics and outcomes associated with multicomponent transfusion. There is a lack of literature on the epidemiology of multicomponent transfusion as most studies concentrate on a single blood product and its utilisation. Patient care and blood management can be optimised by better understanding the patients who receive multicomponent transfusions. The databases Medline, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews were searched. Observational cohort and cross-sectional studies of hospital patients reporting on multicomponent transfusion prevalence or on patient characteristics and outcomes associated with multicomponent transfusion were included. A descriptive synthesis of studies was performed. A total of 37 eligible studies were included. It was found that multicomponent transfusion prevalence varied greatly by patient population and by the combination of blood products given in the multicomponent transfusion. Multicomponent-transfused patients included burn, cardiac surgery, liver surgery and transplant, cancer, infectious diseases, trauma and intensive care unit patients. Five studies found associations between multicomponent transfusion and adverse health outcomes; however, these findings are likely confounded by indication. The overall quality of evidence was low given a fair-to-poor individual study quality, inconsistent multicomponent transfusion prevalence estimates and confounding by indication. Further research is needed to better understand the epidemiology of multicomponent transfusion, including studies on multicomponent transfusion in haematological cancer patients and studies looking for patient characteristics that can better predict multicomponent transfusion need.
The Effectiveness of Tranexamic Acid at Reducing Blood Loss and Transfusion Requirement for Women Undergoing Myomectomy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada : Jogc = Journal D'obstetrique Et Gynecologie Du Canada : Jogc. 2018
BACKGROUND The surgical removal of fibroids can be associated with excessive blood loss requiring transfusion. OBJECTIVE This review sought to determine the effectiveness of tranexamic acid (TA) in reducing perioperative blood loss in women undergoing myomectomy. METHODS Electronic bibliographic databases were searched from inception until June 3, 2017. The review included RCTs of women of reproductive age with uterine fibroids who were undergoing myomectomy and who received TA or a comparator. Two independent reviewers extracted relevant data, and meta-analysis was performed. RESULTS Three studies included women undergoing abdominal myomectomy. TA significantly reduced intraoperative blood loss by a mean difference of 213.1 mL (95% CI -242.4 to -183.7) and postoperative blood loss by a mean difference of 56.3 mL (95% CI -67.8 to -44.8) compared with control arms. However, no significant differences were seen in blood transfusion requirement (relative risk 0.58; 95% CI 0.33-1.00). In one study for women undergoing hysteroscopic myomectomy, TA was not associated with improved outcomes in transfusion requirement and resulted in reduced postoperative hemoglobin levels compared with oxytocin. CONCLUSION Among women undergoing abdominal myomectomy, TA is effective at reducing perioperative blood loss compared with no treatment or placebo. For women undergoing hysteroscopic myomectomy, TA compared with oxytocin is not associated with improved outcomes in transfusion requirement and resulted in reduced postoperative hemoglobin levels.
Comparison of crystalloid resuscitation fluids for treatment of acute brain injury: a clinical and pre-clinical systematic review and network meta-analysis protocol
Systematic Reviews. 2018;7((1)):125.
BACKGROUND Current guidelines identify the choice of fluid resuscitation as important in minimizing the incidence of secondary brain injury from cerebral edema. It is widely accepted that isotonic crystalloid resuscitation fluids, specifically normal saline (NS), are optimal for resuscitation and that other relatively hypotonic fluids, such as Ringer's lactate (RL), should be avoided in this patient population. The aim of this review is to systematically compare the use of relatively hypotonic versus isotonic crystalloid resuscitation fluids in clinical and pre-clinical models of acute brain injury and their effect on outcomes. In recognition of the potential need for a network meta-analysis (NMA), we have also included all other relevant crystalloid resuscitation fluids as interventions of relevance to potentially inform indirect comparisons. METHODS Systematic searches of MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science BIOSIS Previews(R) will be used to identify eligible clinical and pre-clinical studies, which included studies examining acute brain injury (human and in vivo animal brain injury models) within the first 7 days of therapy. The intervention of interest is the intravenous use of relatively hypotonic crystalloid resuscitation fluids (e.g., Ringer's lactate, Hartmann's or Plasma Lyte(R) fluids). The main comparator of interest is an isotonic crystalloid resuscitation fluid, specifically normal saline (0.9%). Other crystalloid resuscitation fluids (e.g., hypertonic saline (3-23.4%)) will also be included as an additional intervention of interest. The primary outcome measures of interest are intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). Secondary outcomes include the effect of resuscitation on cerebral edema, brain and serum osmolarity, and electrolyte concentrations and clinical outcomes including modified Rankin Scale (mRS), (extended) Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS/eGOS), and mortality. Separate meta-analyses will be conducted to quantify the effects of the different fluid resuscitation on acute brain injury outcomes in clinical and pre-clinical populations. Network meta-analyses to compare interventions will also be performed to compare the effects of different interventions. DISCUSSION This systematic review will comprehensively summarize the difference in treatment efficacy of various crystalloid resuscitation fluids in acute brain injury. This review is essential to underscore the evidence, or lack thereof, present in the literature to date to support current preference-driven practice and to direct future study. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION PROSPERO #CRD42016042960.