Treatment of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ). A systematic review
European review for medical and pharmacological sciences. 2021;25(6):2662-2673
OBJECTIVE Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) is a severe drug-related side effect mostly seen in the maxillofacial region of patients under current or previous treatment with antiresorptive and/or angiogenic agents. There is a wide range of treatment options explained in literature for the management of this condition, from conservative treatments to surgical procedures of various levels of invasiveness, which are sometimes supplemented with adjunctive therapies. The present systematic review aimed at evaluating the treatment options of MRONJ in terms of successful outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS Medline, Scopus, and Cochrane databases were searched. The search was limited to clinical studies involving human subjects with at least 3 cases. There was no other limitation for language, publication date, and study design for the articles to be included. A hand search of the bibliographies of identified articles was also performed. The evaluation criterion was an improvement in the healing of the treated site after treatment procedures. RESULTS After evaluation of the full text of the articles, 118 articles were selected for evaluation (15 platelet concentrates, 4 teriparatide, 10 laser therapy, 3 hyperbaric oxygen, 2 ozone applications, 9 conservative protocols, and 75 surgical interventions articles). The evaluated articles reported positive improvements in healing/staging of the osteonecrosis sites. CONCLUSIONS Due to the low evidence level and the limited sample size of the studies included, the results of this review must be cautiously interpreted. However, they can be suggestive for evaluating the possible benefits of these treatment options in MRONJ management. Further prospective comparative studies with a large sample size are urgently needed to confirm the results.
Autologous Platelet Concentrates in Treatment of Furcation Defects-A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
International journal of molecular sciences. 2019;20(6)
BACKGROUND The aim of this review was to evaluate the adjunctive effect of autologous platelet concentrates (APCs) for the treatment of furcation defects, in terms of scientific quality of the clinical trials and regeneration parameters assessment. METHODS A systematic search was carried out in the electronic databases MEDLINE, SCOPUS, CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), and EMBASE, together with hand searching of relevant journals. Two independent reviewers screened the articles yielded in the initial search and retrieved the full-text version of potentially eligible studies. Relevant data and outcomes were extracted from the included studies. Risk of bias assessment was also carried out. The outcome variables, relative to baseline and post-operative defect characteristics (probing pocket depth (PPD), horizontal and vertical clinical attachment loss (HCAL, VCAL), horizontal and vertical furcation depth (HFD, VFD) were considered for meta-analysis. RESULTS Ten randomized trials were included in this review. Only one study was judged at high risk of bias, while seven had a low risk, testifying to the good level of the evidence of this review. The meta-analysis showed a favorable effect regarding all outcome variables, for APCs used in adjunct to open flap debridement (p < 0.001). Regarding APCs in adjunct to bone grafting, a significant advantage was found only for HCAL (p < 0.001, mean difference 0.74, 95% CI 0.54, 0.94). The sub-group analysis showed that both platelet-rich fibrin and platelet-rich plasma in adjunct with open flap debridement, yielded significantly favorable results. No meta-analysis was performed for APCs in combination with guided tissue regeneration (GTR) as only one study was found. CONCLUSION For the treatment of furcation defects APCs may be beneficial as an adjunct to open flap debridement alone and bone grafting, while limited evidence of an effect of APCs when used in combination with GTR was found.
Autologous platelet concentrate for post-extraction socket healing: a systematic review
European Journal of Oral Implantology. 2014;7((4):):333-344.
BACKGROUND Autologous platelet concentrates are claimed to enhance hard and soft tissue healing due to the considerable amount of growth factors that are released after application in the surgical site. However, their actual efficacy for improving tissue healing and regeneration in oral surgery applications is controversial. Tooth extraction socket healing represents a proper model to study the effect of autologous platelet-enriched preparations due to the concomitant occurrence of different processes of both hard and soft tissue healing. PURPOSE To evaluate the efficacy of platelet concentrates for alveolar socket healing after tooth extraction, by conducting a systematic review. MATERIALS AND METHODS Medline, Embase and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched using a combination of specific search terms. The last electronic search was performed on 15 June, 2014. Manual searching of the relevant journals and of the reference lists of reviews and all identified randomised controlled trials was also performed. Randomised controlled trials evaluating the effect of a platelet concentrate on fresh extraction sockets were included. Further inclusion criteria were that at least 10 patients were treated (at least 5 per group) and there was a minimum follow-up duration of 3 months. Primary outcomes were postoperative complications, patient satisfaction and postoperative discomfort. Secondary outcomes were any clinical, radiographic, histological and histomorphometric variables used to assess hard and soft tissue healing. Assessment of the methodological quality of the trials was made. RESULTS were expressed as fixed-effects models using mean differences for continuous outcomes and risk ratios for dichotomous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS The initial search yielded 476 articles. After the screening process, six articles met the inclusion criteria (199 teeth in 156 patients). Three studies were considered at high risk of bias, two at medium risk and one at low risk. A large heterogeneity in study characteristics and outcome variables used to assess hard tissue healing was observed. A meta-analyses of two studies reporting histomorphometric evaluation of bone biopsies at 3 months' follow-up showed greater bone formation when platelet concentrates were used, as compared to control cases (P <0.001; mean difference 20.41%, 95% C.I. 13.29%, 27.52%). Beneficial effects of platelet concentrates were generally but not systematically reported in most studies, in particular when considering the effects on soft tissue healing and the patient's reported postoperative symptoms like pain and swelling, although no meta-analysis could be done for such parameters. CONCLUSIONS Although the results of the meta-analysis of the present review are suggestive for a positive effect of platelet concentrates on bone formation in post-extraction sockets, due to the limited amount and quality of the available evidence, they need to be cautiously interpreted. A standardisation of the experimental design is necessary for a better understanding of the true effects of the use of platelet concentrates for enhancing post-extraction socket healing. Conflict of interest statement: The authors declare they have no conflicts of interest.