Multimodal Patient Blood Management Program Based on a Three-pillar Strategy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Annals of Surgery. 2018
OBJECTIVES To determine whether a multidisciplinary, multimodal Patient Blood Management (PBM) program for patients undergoing surgery is effective in reducing perioperative complication rate, and thereby is effective in improving clinical outcome. BACKGROUND PBM is a medical concept with the focus on a comprehensive anemia management, to minimize iatrogenic (unnecessary) blood loss, and to harness and optimize patient-specific physiological tolerance of anemia. METHODS A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed. Eligible studies had to address each of the 3 PBM pillars with at least 1 measure per pillar, for example, preoperative anemia management plus cell salvage plus rational transfusion strategy. The study protocol has been registered with PROSPERO (CRD42017079217). RESULTS Seventeen studies comprising 235,779 surgical patients were included in this meta-analysis (100,886 pre-PBM group and 134,893 PBM group). Implementation of PBM significantly reduced transfusion rates by 39% [risk ratio (RR) 0.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55-0.68, P < 0.00001], 0.43 red blood cell units per patient (mean difference -0.43, 95% CI -0.54 to -0.31, P < 0.00001), hospital length of stay (mean difference -0.45, 95% CI -0.65 to -0.25, P < 0,00001), total number of complications (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.74-0.88, P <0.00001), and mortality rate (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.80-0.98, P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS Overall, a comprehensive PBM program addressing all 3 PBM pillars is associated with reduced transfusion need of red blood cell units, lower complication and mortality rate, and thereby improving clinical outcome. Thus, this first meta-analysis investigating a multimodal approach should motivate all executives and health care providers to support further PBM activities.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0.
The use of immunoglobulin therapy for patients undergoing solid organ transplantation: an evidence-based practice guideline
Transfusion Medicine Reviews. 2010;24((Suppl 1):):S7-S27.
This guideline for the use of immunoglobulin (IG) for sensitized patients undergoing solid organ transplantation (SOT) is an initiative of the Canadian Blood Services and the National Advisory Committee on Blood and Blood Products of Canada to (1) provide guidance for Canadian practitioners involved in the care of patients undergoing SOT and transfusion medicine specialists on the use of IG and (2) standardize care, limit adverse events, and optimize patient care. A systematic expert and bibliography literature search up to July 2008 was conducted, with 791 literature citations and 45 reports reviewed. To validate the recommendations, the guideline was sent to physicians involved in SOT in Canada and a patient representative. The recommendations identify (1) sensitized patients undergoing SOT that would have a better survival and decreased morbidity by receiving IG preoperatively, postoperatively, and for the treatment of organ rejection; (2) patients who may not have any benefit from receiving IG; and (3) potential adversities to IG.
ABO-identical vs. non-identical platelet transfusion. A systematic review
BACKGROUND The significance of ABO matching for platelet (PLT) transfusion has not been clearly defined. The primary objective of this report is to assess whether ABO-identical PLT transfusion is associated with improved mortality and/or morbidity for patients with hematologic/oncologic disorders. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS A systematic review to January 2009 was conducted. Data on mortality, morbidity, PLT refractoriness, and PLT increment after transfusion were abstracted. RESULTS A total of 100 citations were identified. Nineteen studies were included in the systematic review. A total of 1502 patients from three randomized controlled trials and 16 observational studies were included. Survival, bleeding events, and transfusion reactions were only considered as secondary outcomes in the reports reviewed. The PLT count increment was the primary outcome of several studies and was consistently higher with ABO-identical PLT transfusion. The largest difference in increment between ABO-identical and nonidentical PLT transfusion was 4 x 10(9)/L. No consistent benefit in clinical outcomes was noted. Survival was assessed in three reports with conflicting results. Although two studies described bleeding as an outcome, the assessment of hemorrhage was considered inadequate. In six studies, ABO-nonidentical PLT transfusion was not associated with transfusion reactions, and the results from four studies addressing the impact of ABO-identical PLT transfusion on PLT and red blood cell utilization were conflicting. CONCLUSION ABO-identical PLT transfusion results in a higher PLT increment. Randomized controlled trials are required to definitely determine the effect of ABO-identical PLT transfusion on survival, bleeding events, or transfusion reactions.
A cluster-randomized controlled trial of a blood conservation algorithm in patients undergoing total hip joint arthroplasty
BACKGROUND The optimum strategy for reducing allogeneic blood transfusion in patients undergoing total hip joint arthroplasty (THJA) is unknown. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS The effectiveness of a comprehensive blood conservation algorithm (BCA) was evaluated by means of a cluster randomization trial. Thirty hospitals performing primary THJA were randomly assigned to implement the algorithm or to continue with usual care (UC). Subsequently, the institutional rate of allogeneic transfusion was determined for 60 consecutive patients who underwent surgery at each site. The BCA consisted of patient and provider education, hemoglobin-based recommendations for specific blood conservation strategies (recombinant human erythropoietin [rHuEPO] or autologous blood donation [ABD]) and transfusion guidelines. The main outcome measure was the institutional allogeneic transfusion rate. RESULTS One hospital withdrew consent after randomization, resulting in 14 hospitals assigned to BCA and 15 to UC. In the BCA arm, the institutional rates of rHuEPO use and ABD participation were 20. 1 and 27. 1 percent compared to 0. 6 and 25. 8 percent, respectively, in the UC arm. The allogeneic transfusion rate was substantially reduced in hospitals assigned to the BCA group (p = 0. 02; absolute risk reduction, 9. 6% [26. 1% UC vs. 16. 5% BCA]). Multivariate analysis of patient-level data showed that assignment to the UC arm was an independent risk factor for allogeneic transfusion (p = 0. 037; odds ratio, 1. 8; 95% confidence interval, 1. 0-3. 1) when adjusted for other prognostic factors. No differences were observed in the use of autologous blood. CONCLUSION A comprehensive approach to blood conservation was superior to UC for reducing allogeneic transfusion in patients undergoing THJA.
Guidelines on the use of intravenous immune globulin for neurologic conditions
Transfusion Medicine Reviews. 2007;21(2 (Suppl 1):):S57-107.
Canada's per capita use of intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) grew by approximately 115% between 1998 and 2006, making Canada one of the world's highest per capita users of IVIG. It is believed that most of this growth is attributable to off-label usage. To help ensure IVIG use is in keeping with an evidence-based approach to the practice of medicine, the National Advisory Committee on Blood and Blood Products (NAC) and Canadian Blood Services convened a panel of national experts to develop an evidence-based practice guideline on the use of IVIG for neurologic conditions. The mandate of the expert panel was to review evidence regarding use of IVIG for 22 neurologic conditions and formulate recommendations on IVIG use for each. A panel of 6 clinical experts, one expert in practice guideline development and 4 representatives from the NAC met to review the evidence and reach consensus on the recommendations for the use of IVIG. The primary sources used by the panel were 2 recent evidence-based reviews. Recommendations were based on interpretation of the available evidence and, where evidence was lacking, consensus of expert clinical opinion. A draft of the practice guideline was circulated to neurologists in Canada for feedback. The results of this process were reviewed by the expert panel, and modifications to the draft guideline were made where appropriate. This practice guideline will provide the NAC with a basis for making recommendations to provincial and territorial health ministries regarding IVIG use management. Recommendations for use of IVIG were made for 14 conditions, including acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, dermatomyositis, diabetic neuropathy, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, multifocal motor neuropathy, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, opsoclonus-myoclonus, pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections, polymyositis, Rasmussen's encephalitis, and stiff person syndrome; IVIG was not recommended for 8 conditions including adrenoleukodystrophy, amyotropic lateral sclerosis, autism, critical illness polyneuropathy, inclusion body, myositis, intractable childhood epilepsy, paraproteinemic neuropathy (IgM variant), and POEMS syndrome. Development and dissemination of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines may help to facilitate appropriate use of IVIG.
A program to reduce allogeneic blood exposure in patients undergoing HIP arthroplasty: a cluster randomized trial
Vox Sanguinis. 2005;89((Suppl 1):):119. Abstract No. T-PA-070.
Prophylactic platelet transfusions: which dose is the best dose? A review of the literature
Transfusion Medicine Reviews. 2003;17((3):):181-193.
Routine platelet transfusions for patients with acute leukemia were introduced in the early 1960s, and since then platelet use has increased steadily. Despite widespread use, good clinical evidence supporting prophylactic platelet transfusions is limited, and there are very few studies that have examined the dose for prophylactic platelet transfusions. Review of the platelet dose used in both early studies of routine platelet transfusions and more recent clinical trials of platelet transfusions shows wide variation in dosing, which is also reflected in clinical practice. As such, only limited recommendations for platelet dose have been forthcoming from consensus conferences or guidelines. The results from 3 recent clinical trials and a mathematical model examining the dose for prophylactic platelet transfusions suggest that lower dose transfusions may decrease the total number of platelets transfused; however, no definitive conclusions about the optimal platelet dose can be reached as these trials were not designed to evaluate bleeding outcomes or total platelet utilization. Future large clinical trials of platelet dose, which examine these critical outcomes, are required. Only with these results can the optimal platelet dose be determined.
Anti-D (WinRho SD) treatment of children with chronic autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura stimulates transient cytokine/chemokine production
American Journal of Hematology. 2002;69((3):):225-7.
Intravenous anti-D is often used in the treatment of autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura (AITP), but little is known about its mechanisms of action. To investigate anti-D's potential in vivo mechanism(s) of action, a small group (N = 7) of children with chronic AITP was studied. The children initially received either 25 or 50 microg/kg of WinRho-SD in a four-cycle cross-over trial, and peripheral blood samples from the first and third cycles were assessed for cytokine levels at pre-treatment, 3 hr, 1 day, and 8 days post-treatment. Results showed that platelet counts significantly increased in all the children by day 8 post-treatment. Analysis of serum by ELISA showed that there was a significant but transient rise in both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine levels (e.g., IL1RA, IL6, GM-CSF, MCP-1 alpha, TNF-alpha and MCP-1) by 3 hr post-treatment in both cycles which returned to baseline levels by 8 days post-treatment. These results suggest that anti-D administration may initially activate the RES in the form of cytokine/chemokine secretion, which is subsequently followed by an increase in platelet counts. It is possible that the induced cytokine/chemokine storm may have an effect on several physiological processes such as those mediating either adverse effects or potentially RES phagocytic activity.
Pentastarch instead of albumin as replacement fluid for therapeutic plasma exchange. The Canadian Apheresis Group
Journal of Clinical Apheresis. 1997;12((4):):165-9.
BACKGROUND Human albumin is commonly used as a replacement fluid in therapeutic plasma exchange (PE). In order to determine whether Pentaspan (PES), a synthetic low molecular weight starch solution, might be an effective substitute, we compared albumin with PES in 12 patients with myasthenia gravis or Guillain-Barre syndrome. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Six patients were randomly assigned to receive PES and six to receive albumin as replacement fluid during their course of PE, which consisted of two to five treatments delivered over a maximum of 10 days. All patients were hospitalized and observed closely. Blood pressures were recorded every 4 hours and daily measurements were made of hematologic, coagulation, and immunoglobulin parameters. RESULTS Individual exchange volumes were similar in each group (37 ml/kg--range 6-62--in patients receiving albumin vs. 41 ml/kg--range 6-41--in those receiving PES). Changes in immunoglobulin levels and coagulation parameters were similar but mild, transient thrombocytopenia was observed in three subjects given PES. Total serum protein and albumin levels decreased significantly in patients replaced with PES. Clinically, PES was well tolerated. Hypotension occurred in one patient who developed septic shock due to an infected femoral catheter; in another patient, a pre-existing pleural effusion was thought to increase slightly. CONCLUSIONS PES appears to be a safe replacement fluid for PE, but larger clinical studies are required to confirm these findings.
Extreme leukodepletion as an intervention to prevent platelet alloimmunization in new leukemics: results of a randomized study
Blood. 1991;78:476a.. Abstract No. 1894.