Tranexamic Acid in Craniomaxillofacial Surgery: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review
Facial plastic surgery & aesthetic medicine. 2021
Objective: To compare the effectiveness of tranexamic acid (TXA) in reducing blood loss and decreasing surgery duration in craniomaxillofacial surgery. Methods: The literature was searched systematically for all comparative studies of the effect of TXA on craniomaxillofacial surgery with placebo to evaluate the efficacy of TXA in craniomaxillofacial surgery. The primary outcome was intraoperative blood loss, and secondary outcomes were postoperative hematocrit, postoperative hemoglobin, and operation duration. Results: This systematic review included 16 studies consisting of 958 patients. Meta-analysis revealed that compared with the placebo group, the TXA group showed a significant reduction in intraoperative blood loss of 139.81 mL (95% confidence interval, CI: -179.66 to -99.96 mL; p < 0.01), a shortening of the maxillary surgery duration of 15.48 min (95% CI: -21.03 to -9.92 min; p < 0.01), an elevation of the postoperative hemoglobin level of 0.74 mg/dL (95% CI: 0.42 to 1.07 mg/dL; p < 0.01), and a limited effect on increasing the postoperative hematocrit level of 1.77% (95% CI: 0.17 to 3.36; p = 0.03). Conclusion: The use of TXA in craniomaxillofacial surgery can effectively reduce intraoperative blood loss, maintain elevate postoperative hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, and reduce the operation duration.
Safety and Efficacy of Eltrombopag and Romiplostim in Myelodysplastic Syndromes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Frontiers in oncology. 2020;10:582686
BACKGROUND AND AIM Many studies indicated that eltrombopag and romiplostim could improve hematopoietic function in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), but their toxicity and efficacy were not known. This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of eltrombopag and romiplostim in MDS. METHODS A full-scale search strategy was used to search relevant published studies in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov and the Cochrane Library until January 2020 using a random-effects model and the pooled risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval as the effect indicator. Statistical analyses were performed using RevMan 5.3. RESULTS This meta-analysis included eight studies comprising 1047 patients. A lower RR of overall response rate (ORR) (RR: 0.65; 95% CI, 0.47-0.9) and grade ≥3 bleeding events (RR: 0.36; 95% CI, 0.36-0.92) were observed after romiplostim and eltrombopag treatment compared with placebo. The pooled RR for the ORR and grade ≥3 bleeding events were 0.58 (95% CI: 0.41-0.83, P = 0.003) and 0.6 (95% CI: 0.37-0.96, P = 0.03) in eltrombopag, respectively. A lower ORR in intermediate- or high-risk MDS (RR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.45-0.88, P = 0.006) was observed. No difference in mortality, serious adverse events, platelet transfusion, hematologic improvement, and AML transformation was observed. CONCLUSIONS Thrombopoietin receptor agonists (TPO-RAs) romiplostim and eltrombopag were effective in reducing bleeding events, especially grade ≥3 bleeding events. However, it might reduce the ORR of MDS, especially in eltrombopag treatment group or high-risk MDS group. Due to the limited treatment of MDS and the poor response to the drug, this may be a selection method for MDS combined with fatal bleeding, although further research is needed to confirm the effectiveness of this approach.
Treatment of anemia in patients with heart disease: a systematic review
Annals of Internal Medicine. 2013;159((11):):746-57.
BACKGROUND The benefits of anemia treatment in patients with heart disease are uncertain. PURPOSE To evaluate the benefits and harms of treatments for anemia in adults with heart disease. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases; clinical trial registries; reference lists; and technical advisors. STUDY SELECTION English-language trials of blood transfusions, iron, or erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in adults with anemia and congestive heart failure or coronary heart disease and observational studies of transfusion. DATA EXTRACTION Data on study design, population characteristics, hemoglobin levels, and health outcomes were extracted. Trials were assessed for quality. DATA SYNTHESIS Low-strength evidence from 6 trials and 26 observational studies suggests that liberal transfusion protocols do not improve short-term mortality rates compared with less aggressive protocols (combined relative risk among trials, 0.94 [95% CI, 0.61 to 1.42]; I2 = 16.8%), although decreased mortality rates occurred in a small trial of patients with the acute coronary syndrome (1.8% vs. 13.0%; P = 0.032). Moderate-strength evidence from 3 trials of intravenous iron found improved short-term exercise tolerance and quality of life in patients with heart failure. Moderate- to high-strength evidence from 17 trials of erythropoiesis-stimulating agent therapy found they offered no consistent benefits, but their use may be associated with harms, such as venous thromboembolism. LIMITATIONS Few trials have examined transfusions in patients with heart disease, and observational studies are potentially confounded by indication. Data supporting iron use come mainly from 1 large trial, and long-term effects are unknown. CONCLUSION Higher transfusion thresholds do not consistently improve mortality rates, but large trials are needed. Intravenous iron may help to alleviate symptoms in patients with heart failure and iron deficiency and also warrants further study. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents do not seem to benefit patients with mild to moderate anemia and heart disease and may be associated with serious harms. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs.