Intravenous iron is non-inferior to oral iron regarding cell growth and iron metabolism in colorectal cancer associated with iron-deficiency anaemia
Scientific reports. 2021;11(1):13699
Oral iron promotes intestinal tumourigenesis in animal models. In humans, expression of iron transport proteins are altered in colorectal cancer. This study examined whether the route of iron therapy alters iron transport and tumour growth. Colorectal adenocarcinoma patients with pre-operative iron deficiency anaemia received oral ferrous sulphate (n = 15), or intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (n = 15). Paired (normal and tumour tissues) samples were compared for expression of iron loading, iron transporters, proliferation, apoptosis and Wnt signalling using immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Iron loading was increased in tumour and distributed to the stroma in intravenous treatment and to the epithelium in oral treatment. Protein and mRNA expression of proliferation and iron transporters were increased in tumours compared to normal tissues but there were no significant differences between the treatment groups. However, intravenous iron treatment reduced ferritin mRNA levels in tumours and replenished body iron stores. Iron distribution to non-epithelial cells in intravenous iron suggests that iron is less bioavailable to tumour cells. Therefore, intravenous iron may be a better option in the treatment of colorectal cancer patients with iron deficiency anaemia due to its efficiency in replenishing iron levels while its effect on proliferation and iron metabolism is similar to that of oral iron treatment.
Clinical significance of C-reactive protein levels in predicting responsiveness to iron therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and iron deficiency anemia
Digestive Diseases & Sciences. 2015;60((5)):1375-81.
BACKGROUND Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a common complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In clinical practice, many patients receive initial treatment with iron tablets although intravenous (i.v.) iron supplementation is often preferable. AIM: This study investigated whether systemic inflammation at initiation of treatment (assessed by C-reactive protein [CRP] and interleukin-6 [IL-6] measurements) predicts response to iron therapy. METHODS Data from a previously published phase III trial were retrospectively analyzed after stratification of patients according to baseline CRP (>4 vs. <4 mg/L) and IL-6 (>6 vs. <6 pg/mL) levels. The study population consisted of patients with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis and IDA (Hb < 110 g/L and TSAT < 20 % or serum ferritin < 100 ng/mL), randomized to either oral (ferrous sulfate) or i.v. iron (ferric carboxymaltose). RESULTS A total of 196 patients were evaluated (oral iron: n = 60; i.v. iron: n = 136). Baseline CRP and IL-6 levels were independent of patients' initial Hb levels and iron status (serum ferritin and TSAT; all p > 0.05). Among iron tablet-treated patients, Hb increase was significantly smaller in the high- versus low-CRP subgroup (1.1 vs. 2.0, 2.3 vs. 3.1, and 3.0 vs. 4.0 g/dL at weeks 2, 4, and 8, respectively; all p < 0.05). Differences were less pronounced with stratification according to baseline IL-6. Response to i.v. iron was mainly independent of inflammation. CONCLUSIONS Patients with high baseline CRP achieved a lower Hb response with oral iron therapy. Our results suggest that CRP may be useful to identify IBD patients who can benefit from first-line treatment with i.v. iron to improve their IDA.
Ferric maltol is effective in correcting iron deficiency anemia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: results from a phase-3 clinical trial program
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. 2015;21((3):):579-88.
BACKGROUND Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is frequently seen in inflammatory bowel disease. Traditionally, oral iron supplementation is linked to extensive gastrointestinal side effects and possible disease exacerbation. This multicenter phase-3 study tested the efficacy and safety of ferric maltol, a complex of ferric (Fe) iron with maltol (3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4-pyrone), as a novel oral iron therapy for IDA. METHODS Adult patients with quiescent or mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease, mild-to-moderate IDA (9.5-12.0 g/dL and 9.5-13.0 g/dL in females and males, respectively), and documented failure on previous oral ferrous products received oral ferric maltol capsules (30 mg twice a day) or identical placebo for 12 weeks according to a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study design. The primary efficacy endpoint was change in hemoglobin (Hb) from baseline to week 12. Safety and tolerability were assessed. RESULTS Of 329 patients screened, 128 received randomized therapy (64 ferric maltol-treated and 64 placebo-treated patients) and comprised the intent-to-treat efficacy analysis: 55 ferric maltol patients (86%) and 53 placebo patients (83%) completed the trial. Significant improvements in Hb were observed with ferric maltol versus placebo at weeks 4, 8, and 12: mean (SE) 1.04 (0.11) g/dL, 1.76 (0.15) g/dL, and 2.25 (0.19) g/dL, respectively (P < 0.0001 at all time-points; analysis of covariance). Hb was normalized in two-thirds of patients by week 12. The safety profile of ferric maltol was comparable with placebo, with no impact on inflammatory bowel disease severity. CONCLUSIONS Ferric maltol provided rapid clinically meaningful improvements in Hb and showed a favorable safety profile, suggesting its possible use as an alternative to intravenous iron in IDA inflammatory bowel disease.
Evaluation of a single dose of ferric carboxymaltose in fatigued, iron-deficient women--PREFER a randomized, placebo-controlled study
PLoS ONE [Electronic Resource]. 2014;9((4):):e94217.
BACKGROUND Unexplained fatigue is often left untreated or treated with antidepressants. This randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blinded study evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of single-dose intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) in iron-deficient, premenopausal women with symptomatic, unexplained fatigue. METHODS Fatigued women (Piper Fatigue Scale [PFS] score >5) with iron deficiency (ferritin <50 micro g/L and transferrin saturation <20%, or ferritin <15 micro g/L) and normal or borderline hemoglobin (>115 g/L) were enrolled in 21 sites in Austria, Germany, Sweden and Switzerland, blinded to the study drug and randomized (computer-generated randomization sequence) to a single FCM (1000 mg iron) or saline (placebo) infusion. Primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with reduced fatigue (>1 point decrease in PFS score from baseline to Day 56). RESULTS The full analysis included 290 women (FCM 144, placebo 146). Fatigue was reduced in 65.3% (FCM) and 52.7% (placebo) of patients (OR 1.68, 95%CI 1.05-2.70; p = 0.03). A 50% reduction of PFS score was achieved in 33.3% FCM- vs. 16.4% placebo-treated patients (p<0.001). At Day 56, all FCM-treated patients had hemoglobin levels >120 g/L (vs. 87% at baseline); with placebo, the proportion decreased from 86% to 81%. Mental quality-of-life (SF-12) and the cognitive function scores improved better with FCM. 'Power of attention' improved better in FCM-treated patients with ferritin <15 micro g/L. Treatment-emergent adverse events (placebo 114, FCM 209; most frequently headache, nasopharyngitis, pyrexia and nausea) were mainly mild or moderate. CONCLUSION A single infusion of FCM improved fatigue, mental quality-of-life, cognitive function and erythropoiesis in iron-deficient women with normal or borderline hemoglobin. Although more side effects were reported compared to placebo, FCM can be an effective alternative in patients who cannot tolerate or use oral iron, the common treatment of iron deficiency. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that iron deficiency can affect women's health, and a normal iron status should be maintained independent of hemoglobin levels. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01110356. RN 0 (Ferric Compounds). 0 (Hemoglobins). 0 (Placebos). 0 (Transferrin). 0 (ferric carboxymaltose). 69-79-4 (Maltose). E1UOL152H7 (Iron).
Iron deficiency generates secondary thrombocytosis and platelet activation in IBD: the randomized, controlled thromboVIT trial
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. 2013;19((8):):1609-16.
BACKGROUND Secondary thrombocytosis is a common clinical feature. In patients with cancer, it is a risk factor for venous thromboembolic events. In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), thrombocytosis is so far considered a marker of active disease and may contribute to the increased thromboembolic risk in this population. Observed effects of iron therapy on normalization of platelet counts led us to hypothesize that iron itself may regulate megakaryopoiesis. Here, we want to test the effect of iron replacement on platelet count and activity in IBD-associated thrombocytosis. METHODS We performed a randomized, single-blinded placebo-controlled trial testing the effect of ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) in patients with IBD with secondary thrombocytosis (platelets > 450 G/L). Changes in platelet counts, hemoglobin, iron parameters, disease activity, megakaryopoietic growth factors, erythropoietin, and platelet activity were assessed. Patients received placebo or up to 1500 mg iron as FCM. Endpoints were evaluated at week 6. RESULTS A total of 26 patients were included in the study, 15 patients were available for the per protocol analysis. A drop in platelets >25% (primary endpoint) was observed in 4 of 8 (50%, iron group) and 1 of 7 patients (14%, placebo group, P = 0.143). Mean platelet counts dropped on FCM but not on placebo (536 G/L to 411 G/L versus 580 G/L to 559 G/L; P = 0.002). Disease activity and megakaryopoietic growth factors remained unchanged and hemoglobin and iron parameters increased on FCM. The normalization of platelet counts was associated with a decrease in platelet aggregation and P-selectin expression. CONCLUSION FCM lowers platelet counts and platelet activation in patients with IBD-associated secondary thrombocytosis.
Rapid recurrence of IBD-associated anemia and iron deficiency after intravenous iron sucrose and erythropoietin treatment
The American Journal of Gastroenterology. 2009;104((6):):1460-7.
OBJECTIVES Anemia is a common complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and iron deficiency (ID) is its predominant cause. Therefore, oral and intravenous iron replacements are widely used. This study was performed to evaluate the frequency and timing of anemia and ID recurrence after a successful treatment cycle. METHODS Medical records of patients who had received iron sucrose with or without erythropoietin (EPO) in one of three prospective clinical trials that had been conducted at our center (Ann Intern Med 1997, Digestion 1999, and Am J Gastroenterol 2001) were analyzed for a 5-year follow-up period. The risk for recurrence of anemia (hemoglobin (Hb)<12/13 g per 100 ml) and ID (ferritin <30 microg/l) was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier analysis using the log-rank test. RESULTS Eighty-eight patients were available for analysis. Patients had received a mean iron dose of 2,500 mg (range 600-3,600 mg); 33 (37. 1%) patients had also received EPO. Anemia recurred in a median of 10 months (95% confidence interval (CI) 8-12) and ID recurred within 19 months (95% CI 11-28). The iron dose had no influence on recurrence of ID or anemia. ID (but not anemia) recurred faster in patients with a post-treatment ferritin level <100 microg/l (median 4 months, 95% CI 1-7) than in patients with ferritin level between 100 and 400 microg/l (median 11 months, 95% CI 6-16) and >400 microg/l (median 49 months, 95% CI 32-66; P<0. 001). CONCLUSIONS IBD-associated ID and anemia recur surprisingly fast, indicating that maintenance treatment may be needed in a portion of the patient population. Recurrence of ID (but not anemia) can be delayed by aiming for high post-treatment ferritin levels.
A novel intravenous iron formulation for treatment of anemia in inflammatory bowel disease: the ferric carboxymaltose (FERINJECT) randomized controlled trial
The American Journal of Gastroenterology. 2008;103((5):):1182-92.
BACKGROUND AIMS Anemia is a common complication of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) This multicenter study tested the noninferiority and safety of a new intravenous iron preparation, ferric carboxymaltose (FeCarb), in comparison with oral ferrous sulfate (FeSulf) in reducing iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in IBD. METHODS Two hundred patients were randomized in a 2:1 ratio (137 FeCarb:63 FeSulf) to receive FeCarb (maximum 1,000 mg iron per infusion) at 1-wk intervals until the patients' calculated total iron deficit was reached or FeSulf (100 mg b. i. d. ) for 12 wk. The primary end point was change in hemoglobin (Hb) from baseline to week 12. RESULTS The median Hb improved from 8. 7 to 12. 3 g/dL in the FeCarb group and from 9. 1 to 12. 1 g/dL in the FeSulf group, demonstrating noninferiority (P= 0. 6967). Response (defined as Hb increase of >2. 0 g/dL) was higher for FeCarb at week 2 (P= 0. 0051) and week 4 (P= 0. 0346). Median ferritin increased from 5. 0 to 323. 5 mug/L at week 2, followed by a continuous decrease in the FeCarb group (43. 5 mug/L at week 12). In the FeSulf group, a moderate increase from 6. 5 to 28. 5 mug/L at week 12 was observed. Treatment-related adverse events (AEs) occurred in 28. 5% of the FeCarb and 22. 2% of the FeSulf groups, with discontinuation of study medication due to AEs in 1. 5% and 7. 9%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS FeCarb is effective and safe in IBD-associated anemia. It is noninferior to FeSulf in terms of Hb change over 12 wk, and provides a fast Hb increase and a sufficient refill of iron stores.
Intravenous iron and erythropoietin for anemia associated with Crohn disease. A randomized, controlled trial
Annals of Internal Medicine. 1997;126((10):):782-7.
BACKGROUND Anemia often complicates Crohn disease and affects quality of life. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of intravenous iron alone and in combination with erythropoietin for the treatment of anemia associated with Crohn disease. DESIGN Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial with a subsequent open-label phase. SETTING University-based gastroenterology outpatient clinic. PATIENTS 40 patients with Crohn disease and a hemoglobin concentration of 10.5 g/dL or less. INTERVENTION All patients received intravenous iron saccharate for 16 weeks. During the blinded phase of the trial, they received either erythropoietin or placebo. During the open phase, the erythropoietin dose was increased in non-responders who had received erythropoietin and erythropoietin therapy was initiated in nonresponders who had received placebo. MEASUREMENTS Response was defined as an increase in hemoglobin concentration of 2 g/dL or more. RESULTS 15 of 20 patients in the placebo group (75% [95% CI, 51% to 91%]) and 18 of 19 patients in the erythropoietin group (95% [CI, 74% to 100%]) responded to intravenous iron (P = 0.20). The erythropoietin group had a higher cumulative response rate (P = 0.036) and a more pronounced mean increase in hemoglobin concentration (4.9 g/dL in the erythropoietin group compared with 3.3 g/dL in the placebo group, a difference of 1.6 g/dL [CI, 0.6 g/dL to 2.5 g/dL]; P = 0.004). In the open phase, all 6 previous nonresponders had a response. Hematologic response was associated with improved quality of life (P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS Most patients who have anemia associated with Crohn disease respond to intravenous iron alone. Erythropoietin has additional effects on hemoglobin concentrations.
Recombinant erythropoietin for the treatment of anemia in inflammatory bowel disease
New England Journal of Medicine. 1996;334((10):):619-23.
BACKGROUND Some patients with inflammatory bowel disease have anemia that is refractory to treatment with iron and vitamins. We examined whether administering iron and recombinant erythropoietin could raise hemoglobin levels in such patients. METHODS Thirty-four patients with inflammatory bowel disease (15 with ulcerative colitis and 19 with Crohn's disease) and anemia refractory to iron therapy (hemoglobin concentrations below 10.0 g per deciliter [6.2 mmol per liter]) were randomly assigned in a prospective, double-blind, 12-week trial to receive either oral iron (100 mg per day) and subcutaneous erythropoietin (150 U per kilogram of body weight twice per week) (n=17) or oral iron and placebo (n=17). The primary measure of efficacy was an increase in hemoglobin levels of more than 1.0 g per deciliter (0.62 mmol per liter). Additional analyses were performed with other patients with inflammatory bowel disease. RESULTS The severity of anemia was related to clinical disease activity as well as to in vitro monocyte secretion of interleukin-1 beta, a proinflammatory cytokine. Serum erythropoietin concentrations were increased in 52 randomly selected outpatients with inflammatory bowel disease and anemia, but the concentrations were inadequate in relation to the degree of anemia. Twelve weeks of therapy with recombinant erythropoietin and oral iron increased mean (+/-SE) hemoglobin concentrations from 8.81+/-0.27 g per deciliter (5.47+/-0.17 micromol per liter) to 10.52+/-0.41 g per deciliter (6.5+/-0.25 micromol per liter), whereas hemoglobin concentrations in the placebo group decreased from 8.69+/-0.11 g per deciliter (5.4+/-0.068 micromol per liter) to 7.84+/- 0.33 g per deciliter (4.9+/-0.2 mmol per liter) (P<0.001). After 12 weeks, hemoglobin levels had increased by more than 1.0 g per deciliter in 82 percent of the patients in the erythropoietin group, as compared with 24 percent of those in the placebo group (P=0.002). There were five treatment failures in the placebo group and two in the erythropoietin group (P=0.18); treatment failure was defined as a decrease in hemoglobin levels of more than 2.0 g per deciliter (1.24 micromol per liter) to a value below 8.0 g per deciliter (4.96 micromol per liter) or any decrease to less than 6.5 g per deciliter (4.03 micromol per liter). CONCLUSIONS In patients with inflammatory bowel disease and anemia refractory to treatment with iron and vitamins, treatment with oral iron and recombinant erythropoietin can raise hemoglobin levels.