Hospitalized adult medical patients (17 studies).
Systematic review to identify prognostic factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE) and bleeding.
Fourteen studies that reported on VTE identified 29 candidate prognostic factors and three that reported on bleeding identified 17 candidate factors. For VTE, moderate certainty evidence shows a probable association with older age, elevated CRP, D-dimer, fibrinogen levels, heart rate, thrombocytosis, leukocytosis, fever, leg edema, lower Barthel Index score, immobility, paresis, previous history of VTE, thrombophilia, malignancy, critical illness and infections. For bleeding, moderate certainty evidence shows a probable association with older age, sex, anemia, obesity, low hemoglobin, gastroduodenal ulcers, rehospitalization, critical illness, thrombocytopenia, blood dyscrasias, hepatic disease, renal failure, antithrombotic medication and central venous catheter. Elevated CRP, a lower Barthel Index, history of malignancy and elevated heart rate are not included in most VTE risk assessment models.