IVIG plus Glucocorticoids versus IVIG Alone in Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) Associated with COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
The Canadian journal of infectious diseases & medical microbiology = Journal canadien des maladies infectieuses et de la microbiologie medicale. 2022;2022:9458653
BACKGROUND There is limited information available regarding the management of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with SARS-CoV-2. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the optimal treatment using IVIG alone versus IVIG plus glucocorticoids. METHODS PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched along with other secondary searches. Studies published within the time frame of January 2020 to August 2021 were included. We screened records, extracted data, and assessed the quality of the studies using NOS. Studies that directly compare the two treatment groups were included. Analyses were conducted using the random-effects model (DerSimonian-Laird analysis) if I (2) > 50% and fixed-effects model was used if I (2) < 50%. RESULTS We included three studies in the final quantitative analysis. The initial therapy with the IVIG plus glucocorticoids group significantly lowered the risk of treatment failure (OR 0.57, 95% CI (0.42, 0.79), I (2) 45.36%) and the need for adjunctive immunomodulatory therapy (OR 0.27, 95% CI (0.20, 0.37), I (2) 0.0%). The combination therapy showed no significant reduction in occurrence of left ventricular dysfunction (OR 0.79, 95% CI (0.34, 1.87), I (2) 58.44%) and the need for inotropic support (OR 0.83, 95% CI (0.35, 1.99), I (2) 75.40%). CONCLUSION This study supports the use of IVIG with glucocorticoids compared to IVIG alone, as the combination therapy significantly lowered the risk of treatment failure and the need for adjunctive immunomodulatory therapy.
Leukapheresis for the management of hyperleukocytosis in acute myeloid leukemia-A systematic review and meta-analysis
BACKGROUND Up to 20% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) present with hyperleukocytosis, usually defined as a white blood cell (WBC) count greater than 100 × 10(9) /L. Given the high early mortality rate, emergent cytoreduction with either leukapheresis, hydroxyurea, or chemotherapy is indicated, but the optimal strategy is unknown. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS For this systematic review and meta-analysis we searched MEDLINE and EMBASE via Ovid, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and Web of Science from inception through March 2020 for multiarm studies comparing early mortality rates of patients with AML treated with leukapheresis and those who were not. The risk ratio (RR) of early death for patients who received leukapheresis vs patients who did not was estimated using a sum of the log-ratio of individual study estimates weighted by sample size. RESULTS Among 13 two-arm, retrospective studies with 1743 patients (486 leukapheresis and 1257 nonleukapheresis patients), leukapheresis did not improve the primary outcome of early mortality compared to treatment strategies in which leukapheresis was not used (RR, 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69-1.13; P = .321) without statistically significant heterogeneity between studies (Cochran's Q, 18; P = .115; I(2) , 33.4%). Patients presenting with clinical leukostasis tended to be more likely to undergo leukapheresis (odds ratio, 2.01; 95% CI, 0.99-4.08; P = .052). CONCLUSION As we did not find evidence of a short-term mortality benefit and considering the associated complications and logistic burden, our results argue against the routine use of leukapheresis for hyperleukocytosis among patients with AML.
Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of iron chelation therapy on overall survival and disease progression in patients with lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes
Annals of Hematology. 2018
The impact of iron chelation therapy (ICT) on overall survival (OS) and progression to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in patients with iron overload and International Prognostic Scoring System low- or intermediate-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is not well understood. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies of ICT in patients with MDS to better elucidate these relationships. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane databases, and the World Health Organization Clinical Trial Registry for studies reporting the impact of ICT on OS in patients with low- or intermediate-risk MDS. Studies were examined for demographics, effect measures, and potential bias risk. Fixed and random-effects models were used to calculate adjusted OS and adjusted hazards ratio (aHR) estimates, respectively, among the different studies. Nine observational studies (four prospective and five retrospective) were identified. For patients with MDS, ICT was associated with an overall lower risk of mortality compared with no ICT (aHR 0.42; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.28-0.62; P < 0.01); however, there was significant heterogeneity across the studies. In studies reporting progression to AML, ICT was not associated with decreased risk of progression (odds ratio 0.68; 95% CI 0.31-1.43; P < 0.030). This systematic review and meta-analysis of nine nonrandomized trials demonstrated significant reduction in risk of mortality in patients with iron overload and low- or intermediate-risk MDS treated with ICT; however, a causal relationship cannot be established. Randomized, controlled trials are needed to more definitively evaluate the relationship between ICT and survival in patients with iron overload and low- or intermediate-risk MDS.