Cognitive and physical performance are well preserved following standard blood donation: A noninferiority, randomized clinical trial
Nadler R, Tsur AM, Lipsky AM, Lending G, Benov A, Ostffeld I, Shinar E, Yanovich R, Moser A, Levy D, et al
BACKGROUND A walking blood bank (WBB) refers to the use of fellow combatants for battlefield blood donation. This requires pretesting combatants for infectious diseases and blood type. A fundamental prerequisite for this technique is that the donating soldier will suffer minimal physiological and mental impact. The purpose of the current study is to assess the effect of blood shedding on battlefield performance. METHODS This is a double-blind randomized control trial. Forty Israel Defense Forces combatants volunteered for the study. Participants underwent baseline evaluation, including repeated measurement of vital signs, cognitive evaluation, physical evaluation, and a strenuous shooting test. Three weeks after the baseline evaluation, subjects were randomized to either blood donation or the control group. For blinding purposes, all subjects underwent venous catheterization for the duration of a blood donation. Repeated vital signs and function evaluation were then performed. RESULTS Thirty-six patients were available for randomization. Baseline measurements were similar for both groups. Mean strenuous shooting score was 80.5 +/- 9.5 for the control group and 82 +/- 6.6 for the test group (p = 0.58). No clinically or statistically significant differences were found in tests designed to evaluate cognitive performance or physical functions. Vital signs taken multiple times were also similar between the test and control groups. CONCLUSIONS Executive, cognitive, and physical functions were well preserved after blood donation. This study supports the hypothesis that a WBB does not decrease donor combat performance. The categorical prohibition of physical exercise following blood donation might need to be reconsidered in both military and civilian populations.
High Tourniquet Failure Rates Among Non-Medical Personnel Do Not Improve with Tourniquet Training, Including Combat Stress Inoculation: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Infantry combatants (n= 36).
Blood donation group: 450ml of blood collected after venous catheterisation (n= 18).
Control group: venous catheterisation (n= 18).
No clinically or statistically significant differences were found in tests designed to evaluate cognitive performance or physical functions. Vital signs taken multiple times were also similar between the test and control groups.
Tsur AM, Binyamin Y, Koren L, Ohayon S, Thompson P, Glassberg E
Prehospital and disaster medicine. 2019;:1-6
BACKGROUND The rate of failing to apply a tourniquet remains high. HYPOTHESIS The study objective was to examine whether early advanced training under conditions that approximate combat conditions and provide stress inoculation improve competency, compared to the current educational program of non-medical personnel. METHODS This was a randomized controlled trial. Male recruits of the armored corps were included in the study. During Combat Lifesaver training, recruits apply The Tourniquet 12 times. This educational program was used as the control group. The combat stress inoculation (CSI) group also included 12 tourniquet applications, albeit some of them in combat conditions such as low light and physical exertion. Three parameters defined success, and these parameters were measured by The Simulator: (1) applied pressure ≥ 200mmHg; (2) time to stop bleeding ≤ 60 seconds; and (3) placement up to 7.5cm above the amputation. RESULTS Out of the participants, 138 were assigned to the control group and 167 were assigned to the CSI group. The overall failure rate was 80.33% (81.90% in the control group versus 79.00% in the CSI group; P value = .565; 95% confidence interval, 0.677 to 2.122). Differences in pressure, time to stop bleeding, or placement were not significant (95% confidence intervals, -17.283 to 23.404, -1.792 to 6.105, and 0.932 to 2.387, respectively). Tourniquet placement was incorrect in most of the applications (62.30%). CONCLUSIONS This study found high rates of failure in tourniquet application immediately after successful completion of tourniquet training. These rates did not improve with tourniquet training, including CSI. The results may indicate that better tourniquet training methods should be pursued.
Tranexamic acid as part of remote damage-control resuscitation in the prehospital setting: a critical appraisal of the medical literature and available alternatives
Ausset S, Glassberg E, Nadler R, Sunde G, Cap AP, Hoffmann C, Plang S, Sailliol A
The Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery. 2015;78((6 Suppl 1)):S70-5.
BACKGROUND Hemorrhage remains the leading cause of preventable trauma-associated mortality. Interventions that improve prehospital hemorrhage control and resuscitation are needed. Tranexamic acid (TXA) has recently been shown to reduce mortality in trauma patients when administered upon hospital admission, and available data suggest that early dosing confers maximum benefit. Data regarding TXA implementation in prehospital trauma care and analyses of alternatives are lacking. This review examines the available evidence that would inform selection of hemostatic interventions to improve outcomes in prehospital trauma management as part of a broader strategy of "remote damage-control resuscitation" (RDCR). METHODS The medical literature available concerning both the safety and the efficacy of TXA and other hemostatic agents was reviewed. RESULTS TXA use in surgery was studied in 129 randomized controlled trials, and a meta-analysis was identified. More than 800,000 patients were followed up in large cohort study. In trauma, a large randomized controlled trial, the CRASH-2 study, recruited more than 20,000 patients, and two cohort studies studied more than 1,000 war casualties. In the prehospital setting, the US, French, British, and Israeli militaries as well as the British, Norwegian, and Israeli civilian ambulance services have implemented TXA use as part of RDCR policies. CONCLUSION Available data support the efficacy and the safety of TXA. High-level evidence supports its use in trauma and strongly suggests that its implementation in the prehospital setting offers a survival advantage to many patients, particularly when evacuation to surgical care may be delayed. TXA plays a central role in the development of RDCR strategies.