Aseptic meningitis and leptomeningeal enhancement associated with anti-MOG antibodies: A review
Journal of neuroimmunology. 2021;358:577653
BACKGROUND Aseptic meningitis can be caused by autoimmune diseases, such as lupus and sarcoidosis. Aseptic meningitis with leptomeningeal enhancement can be the initial presentation of a neuroinflammatory syndrome associated with antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-abs). MOG-abs is a serum biomarker for MOG-associated disorder (MOG-AD), an acquired demyelinating syndrome that includes features of neuromyelitis optica, multiple sclerosis, optic neuritis, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. The purpose of this study is to review cases of aseptic meningitis and leptomeningeal enhancement associated with MOG-abs. METHODS Systematic review using PubMed, Embase, Ovid MEDLINE, Web of Science Core Collection, and Google Scholar up to December 2020 was performed. Cases of MOG-AD were included if they met the following criteria: 1) Initial clinical presentation of aseptic meningitis; 2) positive leptomeningeal enhancement and 3) MOG-Ab seropositivity. Descriptive statistics were used. This analysis was limited to the cases available in the literature. RESULTS 11 total cases of aseptic meningitis and leptomeningeal enhancement in setting of MOG-ab were identified. Demyelinating type T2 lesions were also present at time of presentation in 6/11; however, 5/11 of patients had leptomeningeal enhancement alone without demyelinating lesions. All 5 patients required immunotherapy for improvement, including one patient with symptoms for 28 days, with 4/5 receiving steroids and 1/5 receiving intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). CONCLUSIONS Aseptic meningitis with leptomeningeal enhancement can be the initial presenting symptom of MOG-AD. MOG-ab testing should be considered in a patient presenting with aseptic meningitis and leptomeningeal enhancement of unknown etiology.