Impact of perioperative blood transfusions on oncologic outcomes after radical cystectomy: A systematic review and meta-analysis of comparative studies
Surgical oncology. 2021;38:101592
This study aimed at systematically analyzing and evaluating the impact of perioperative blood transfusions (PBT) on oncologic outcomes of patients undergoing radical cystectomy for bladder cancer. This systematic review follows the recommendations of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews and Interventions and was conducted in line with the PRISMA statement and the AMSTAR II criteria. A comprehensive database search was performed based on the PICO criteria. Two independent reviewers performed all screening steps and quality assessment. Risk of bias and certainty in evidence were assessed with the Newcastle Ottawa Scale for non-randomized trials and the GRADE approach. Of 1123 identified studies 20 were eligible for qualitative analysis and 15 for quantitative analysis reporting on 21,915 patients. Receiving a PBT was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR) [95% confidence interval (CI)]: 1.29 [1.18, 1.40]; p < 0.001), cancer-specific mortality (HR [CI]: 1.27 [1.15; 1.41]; p < 0.001) and disease recurrence (HR [CI]: 1.22 [1.12; 1.34]; p < 0.001). Subgroup analysis of transfusion timing revealed a significantly increased risk of mortality with intraoperative or combined intra- and postoperative transfusions compared to postoperative transfusion only for all three outcomes (p < 0.001). Leukocyte-depletion was associated with increased all-cause mortality, but not cancer-specific mortality. The administration of PBT negatively impacts oncological outcomes after radical cystectomy. Therefore, careful treatment indication and strict adherence to transfusion guidelines is encouraged in order to avoid adverse effects during the perioperative course.
Autologous blood pleurodesis for the treatment of postoperative air leaks. A systematic review and meta-analysis
Thoracic cancer. 2021
BACKGROUND Postoperative air leaks are a common complication after lung surgery. They are associated with prolonged hospital stay, increased postoperative pain and treatment costs. The treatment of prolonged air leaks remains controversial. Several treatments have been proposed including different types of sealants, chemical pleurodesis, or early surgical intervention. The aim of this review was to analyze the impact of autologous blood pleurodesis in a systematic way. METHODS A systematic review of the literature was conducted until July 2020. Studies with more than five adult patients undergoing lung resections were included. Studies in patients receiving blood pleurodesis for pneumothorax were excluded. The search strategy included proper combinations of the MeSH terms "air leak", "blood transfusion" and "lung surgery". RESULTS Ten studies with a total of 198 patients were included in the analysis. The pooled success rate for sealing the air leak within 48 h of the blood pleurodesis was 83.7% (95% CI: 75.7; 90.3). The pooled incidence of the post-interventional empyema was 1.5%, with a pooled incidence of post-interventional fever of 8.6%. CONCLUSIONS Current evidence supports the idea that autologous blood pleurodesis leads to a faster healing of postoperative air leaks than conservative treatment. The complication rate is very low. Formal recommendations on how to perform the procedure are not possible with the current evidence. A randomized controlled trial in the modern era is necessary to confirm the benefits.