Topical Application of Tranexamic Acid Can Reduce Postoperative Blood Loss in Calcaneal Fractures: A Randomized Controlled Trial
The Journal of foot and ankle surgery : official publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. 2022
The traditional lateral "L" approach is common for managing calcaneal fractures with a drawback of significant blood loss. Yet there are no prospective studies on the hemostatic effect of the topical use of tranexamic acid (TXA) in calcaneal fracture surgeries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of topical administration of TXA in reducing postoperative blood loss in calcaneal fractures. Forty participants were randomly distributed into the TXA group (n = 20) and the control group (n = 20). All participants underwent the same surgery via the lateral "L" approach. At the end of the operation, the surgical wound was irrigated with 80 mL 0.5 g/L TXA in the TXA group and 80 mL 0.9% sodium chloride in the control group, followed by the routine use of a drainage tube when closing the incision. Then, 20 mL 0.5 g/L TXA (TXA group) or 20 mL 0.9% sodium chloride solution (control group) was injected retrogradely into the wound through the drainage tube, which was clipped for 30 minutes thereafter. There were no significant differences in the baseline data between the 2 groups (p > .05). There was significantly less blood loss in the first 24 hours and total blood loss postoperation in the TXA group (p < .01). The surgical wounds healed well after surgery in both groups with no complication. We concluded that topical application of TXA in calcaneal fracture surgeries is a safe and useful method that can reduce postoperative blood loss.
Low-dose PPI to prevent bleeding after ESD: A multicenter randomized controlled study
Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie. 2021;136:111251
BACKGROUND Although proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely used in the prevention of gastric bleeding caused by endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), there is no consensus on the optimal regimen for these patients. Therefore, we aim to investigate whether intermittent use of low-dose PPI is sufficient to prevent post-ESD bleeding. METHODS This multicenter, non-inferiority, randomized controlled trial was conducted at 9 hospitals in China. Consecutive eligible patients with a diagnosis of gastric mucosal lesions after ESD treatment were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either intermittent low-dose or continuous high-dose PPIs treatment. After three days, all patients administered orally esomeprazole 40 mg once a day for 8 weeks. The primary endpoint was post-ESD bleeding within 7 days. Analysis was done according to the intention-to-treat principle with the non-inferiority margin (Δ) of 5%. RESULTS 526 consecutive patients were assessed for eligibility from 30 September 2017 to 30 July 2019, of whom 414 were randomly assigned to low-dose (n = 209) or high-dose (n = 205) esomeprazole treatment group without dropouts within7 days. The total post-ESD bleeding is occurred in 13 (6.2 %, 95 % CI 3.3-9.6) of 209 within 7 days in the intermittent low-dose group, and 12 (5.9 %, 95 % CI 2.9-9.3) of 205 in the continuous high-dose group. The absolute risk reduction (ARR) was 0.4 % (-4.2, 4.9). One month after ESD, There are 44 patients (21.1 %, 95 % CI 15.8, 26.8) and 39 patients (19.0 % 95 % CI 13.7, 24.4) in scar stage respectively in low-dose group and high-dose group (P = 0.875).The hospital costs in the low-dose PPI group was lower than high -dose group (P = 0.005). CONCLUSION The intermittent use of low-dose PPIs is sufficient to prevent post-ESD bleeding. It might be applied in clinical practice to prevent post-ESD bleeding and reduce the costs related to PPIs.
Growth factor concentrations in platelet rich plasma for androgenetic alopecia: an intra-subject, randomized, blinded, placebo controlled, pilot study
Experimental dermatology. 2020
BACKGROUND Platelet rich plasma (PRP), processed from autologous peripheral blood, is used to treat androgenetic alopecia (AGA). OBJECTIVE To determine the efficacy of PRP for hair growth promotion in AGA patients in a randomized, blinded, placebo controlled, pilot clinical trial (NCT02074943). METHODS The efficacy of an 8 week, 5 session, PRP treatment course was determined by measuring hair density and hair caliber changes in 10 AGA affected patients. For each PRP sample, the concentrations of selected growth factors were determined using a multiplex assay system. The clinical results were then correlated to the growth factor concentrations in PRP. RESULTS At 16 weeks, 8 weeks after the last PRP injection, treated areas exhibited increased mean hair density (+12.76%) over baseline compared to placebo (+0.99%). Mean hair caliber decreased in both treated and placebo regions (-16.22% and -19.46% respectively). Serial analysis of PRP significant variability in concentrations between patients. Overall, there was a positive correlation between GDNF concentration and hair density (p= 0.004). Trends, though not statistically significant, were also observed for FGF2 and VEGF. LIMITATIONS Small sample size and lack of comparative cohorts receiving protocol variations limit confidence in the study data. CONCLUSIONS This small pilot clinical trial suggests PRP treatment may be beneficial for AGA. However, the variable hair growth responses between patients indicate there is a significant opportunity to improve PRP therapy protocols for hair growth promotion. The variability in growth factor concentration in PRP suggests standardization of growth factors post-processing might improve hair growth responses.
The efficiency and safety of fibrin sealant for reducing blood loss in primary total hip arthroplasty: a systematic review and meta-analysis
International Journal of Surgery (London, England). 2016;37:50-57.
OBJECTIVE Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is associated with substantial blood loss. The objective of present systematic review and meta-analysis is to provide evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the efficiency and safety of administration of fibrin sealant (FS) for reducing blood loss in patients undergoing primary THA. METHODS Potential relevant studies were identified from electronic databases including Medline, PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, web of science and Cochrane Library. Gray academic studies were also identified from the reference list of included studies. There was no language restriction. Pooling of data was carried out by using RevMan 5.1. RESULTS Six randomized controlled trials (RCTs) met the inclusion criteria. Current meta-analysis indicated that there were significant differences in terms of total blood loss (MD = -153.77, 95% CI: -287.21 to -20.34, P = 0.02), postoperative hemoglobin level (MD = -0.25, 95% CI: -0.46 to -0.05, P = 0.02) and transfusion rate (RD = -0.12, 95% CI: -0.22 to -0.03, P = 0.01) between groups. No significant differences were found regarding the incidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) (RD = 0.00, 95% CI: -0.01to 0.01, P = 0.51) or other side effects. CONCLUSION Administration of fibrin sealant in total hip arthroplasty may reduce total blood loss, postoperative hemoglobin decline and transfusion requirements. Moreover, no adverse effect was related to FS. Due to the limited quality of the evidence currently available, higher quality RCTs are required.