Platelet-rich plasma or extracorporeal shockwave therapy for plantar fasciitis
International journal of burns and trauma. 2021;11(1):1-8
BACKGROUND Plantar fasciitis is a common cause of plantar pain which is prevalent among adults. Conservative tractions, invasive injections, shock therapies and also surgical procedures are known as beneficial methods in non-responsive cases. Here we evaluated and compared the injection of platelet rich plasma (PRP) and usage of extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) in pain reduction in patients with chronic plantar fasciitis. METHODS This is a randomized clinical trial that was performed in 2017-2020 on patients with chronic plantar fasciitis who did not respond to conservative therapies. A total number of 110 patients with plantar fasciitis were entered based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Patients were then divided into two groups. The pain of patients was measured using visual analogue scale (VAS) before interventions. The first group underwent PRP injections while the second group underwent ESWT using Shock Master 500. Patients were visited 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 24 weeks after interventions and the pain scores were noted using VAS. RESULTS Data of 104 patients were analyzed. Initial VAS scores of patients were also analyzed. These data indicated no significant differences between the pains of patients before interventions (P = 0.413). Pain evaluations in 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 24 weeks after interventions with controlling age and sex showed significantly reduced VAS scores in both groups after interventions (P = 0.002). We should also note that pain in the PRP group reduced more than ESWT group and this difference was also significant (P = 0.001). CONCLUSION Here we showed that PRP injections and ESWT are both beneficial in pain amelioration in patients with chronic plantar fasciitis. We also indicated that PRP injections were associated with better pain reduction results compared to ESWT.
A Post Hoc Analysis of Osmotherapy Use in the Erythropoietin in Traumatic Brain Injury Study-Associations With Acute Kidney Injury and Mortality
Critical care medicine. 2021
OBJECTIVES Mannitol and hypertonic saline are used to treat raised intracerebral pressure in patients with traumatic brain injury, but their possible effects on kidney function and mortality are unknown. DESIGN A post hoc analysis of the erythropoietin trial in traumatic brain injury (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00987454) including daily data on mannitol and hypertonic saline use. SETTING Twenty-nine university-affiliated teaching hospitals in seven countries. PATIENTS A total of 568 patients treated in the ICU for 48 hours without acute kidney injury of whom 43 (7%) received mannitol and 170 (29%) hypertonic saline. INTERVENTIONS None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS We categorized acute kidney injury stage according to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcome classification and defined acute kidney injury as any Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcome stage-based changes from the admission creatinine. We tested associations between early (first 2 d) mannitol and hypertonic saline and time to acute kidney injury up to ICU discharge and death up to 180 days with Cox regression analysis. Subsequently, acute kidney injury developed more often in patients receiving mannitol (35% vs 10%; p < 0.001) and hypertonic saline (23% vs 10%; p < 0.001). On competing risk analysis including factors associated with acute kidney injury, mannitol (hazard ratio, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.2-4.3; p = 0.01), but not hypertonic saline (hazard ratio, 1.6; 95% CI, 0.9-2.8; p = 0.08), was independently associated with time to acute kidney injury. In a Cox model for predicting time to death, both the use of mannitol (hazard ratio, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.1-4.1; p = 0.03) and hypertonic saline (hazard ratio, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.02-3.2; p = 0.04) were associated with time to death. CONCLUSIONS In this post hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial, the early use of mannitol, but not hypertonic saline, was independently associated with an increase in acute kidney injury. Our findings suggest the need to further evaluate the use and choice of osmotherapy in traumatic brain injury.
Erythropoietin in traumatic brain injury (EPO-TBI): a double-blind randomised controlled trial
BACKGROUND Erythropoietin might have neurocytoprotective effects. In this trial, we studied its effect on neurological recovery, mortality, and venous thrombotic events in patients with traumatic brain injury. METHODS Erythropoietin in Traumatic Brain Injury (EPO-TBI) was a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial undertaken in 29 centres (all university-affiliated teaching hospitals) in seven countries (Australia, New Zealand, France, Germany, Finland, Ireland, and Saudi Arabia). Within 24 h of brain injury, 606 patients were randomly assigned by a concealed web-based computer-generated randomisation schedule to erythropoietin (40,000 units subcutaneously) or placebo (09% sodium chloride subcutaneously) once per week for a maximum of three doses. Randomisation was stratified by severity of traumatic brain injury (moderate vs severe) and participating site. With the exception of designated site pharmacists, the site dosing nurses at all sites, and the pharmacists at the central pharmacy in France, all study personnel, patients, and patients' relatives were masked to treatment assignment. The primary outcome, assessed at 6 months by modified intention-to-treat analysis, was improvement in the patients' neurological status, summarised as a reduction in the proportion of patients with an Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS-E) of 1-4 (death, vegetative state, and severe disability). Two equally spaced preplanned interim analyses were done (after 202 and 404 participants were enrolled). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00987454. FINDINGS Between May 3, 2010, and Nov 1, 2014, 606 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to erythropoietin (n=308) or placebo (n=298). Ten of these patients (six in the erythropoietin group and four in the placebo group) were lost to follow up at 6 months; therefore, data for the primary outcome analysis was available for 596 patients (302 in the erythropoietin group and 294 in the placebo group). Compared with placebo, erythropoietin did not reduce the proportion of patients with a GOS-E level of 1-4 (134 [44%] of 302 patients in the erythropoietin group vs 132 [45%] of 294 in the placebo group; relative risk [RR] 099 [95% CI 083-118], p=090). In terms of safety, erythropoietin did not significantly affect 6-month mortality versus placebo (32 [11%] of 305 patients had died at 6 months in the erythropoietin group vs 46 [16%] of 297 [16%] in the placebo group; RR 068 [95% CI 044-103], p=007) or increase the occurrence of deep venous thrombosis of the lower limbs (48 [16%] of 305 vs 54 [18%] of 298; RR 087 [95% CI 061-124], p=044). INTERPRETATION Following moderate or severe traumatic brain injury, erythropoietin did not reduce the number of patients with severe neurological dysfunction (GOS-E level 1-4) or increase the incidence of deep venous thrombosis of the lower limbs. The effect of erythropoietin on mortality remains uncertain. FUNDING The National Health and Medical Research Council and the Transport Accident Commission.Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Placebo-controlled study of intravenous magnesium supplementation during large-volume leukapheresis in healthy allogeneic donors
BACKGROUND Marked decreases in ionized magnesium (iMg) levels occur during large-volume leukapheresis (LVL); however, the effect of intravenous (IV) magnesium supplementation in this setting has not been carefully studied. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Thirty healthy allogeneic peripheral blood progenitor cell donors receiving citrate anticoagulant with IV calcium prophylaxis were randomized to receive either IV magnesium (0. 2 mg Mg per mL acid citrate dextrose-A) or placebo during LVL, with a double-blind design. RESULTS Thirty subjects underwent 75 LVL pro- cedures, 37 with magnesium and 38 with placebo. Group characteristics were similar for sex, weight, citrate infusion rate (1. 36 mg/kg/min vs. 1. 37 mg/kg/min), and volume processed (16 L vs. 17 L). Serum iMg levels remained within the reference range with magnesium supplementation, but decreased 39+/-11 percent below baseline (p<10(-10)) after placebo, with greater decreases after consecutive procedures. Subjects receiving magnesium had more vigorous parathyroid hormone responses and higher glucose levels and also tended to have higher serum potassium and ionized calcium levels. Mild paresthesias, coldness, and nausea occurred in 28, 20, and 7 percent of donors, respectively, with no significant differences between groups. Severe symptoms (chest tightness) occurred in only one subject receiving placebo. CONCLUSION IV magnesium supplementation exerts a significant impact on serum magnesium levels, but does not reduce the frequency or severity of the relatively mild citrate-related effects observed in LVL performed with continuous IV calcium prophylaxis.