Fluid resuscitation with 5% albumin versus normal saline in early septic shock: a pilot randomized, controlled trial
Journal of Critical Care. 2012;27((3):):317.e1-6.
PURPOSE Randomized, controlled trials of fluid resuscitation in early septic shock face many logistic challenges. We describe the Fluid Resuscitation with 5% albumin versus Normal Saline in Early Septic Shock (PRECISE) pilot trial study design and report feasibility of patient recruitment. MATERIALS AND METHODS Six Canadian academic centers enrolled adult patients with early suspected septic shock from the emergency department and intensive care unit department. Consent was deferred. Using concealed allocation, participants were randomized to either 5% albumin or 0.9% sodium chloride. Blinded fluid resuscitation started immediately and continued for 7 days in the intensive care unit. Target recruitment was established a priori at 2 patients per site per month. RESULTS Fifty-one patients were enrolled; 50 patients received study fluid. We recruited a median of 2.5 patients (interquartile range [IQR], 1.5-3.0) per site per month into the trial. Median age and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores were 64.5 (IQR, 55.0-78.0) and 25.0 (IQR, 20.0-29.0), respectively. Most patients (n = 37 [74.0%]) were enrolled from the emergency department for a median of 1.6 hours (IQR, 0.8-3.5 hours) from their first hypotensive event and received a median of 2.4 L (IQR, 1.5-3.0 L) of resuscitation fluid before inclusion. Consent was deferred for 44 patients (89.8%). CONCLUSIONS Patient recruitment into the PRECISE pilot trial met our prespecified feasibility targets, and the PRECISE team is planning the larger trial. Copyright 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A randomized controlled pilot study of adherence to transfusion strategies in cardiac surgery
BACKGROUND It is important to determine the optimal hemoglobin (Hb) concentration for red blood cell (RBC) transfusion for patients undergoing cardiac surgery because increased mortality has been associated with the severity of anemia and exposure to RBCs. Because a definitive trial will require thousands of patients, and because there is variability in transfusion practices, a pilot study was undertaken to determine adherence to proposed strategies. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS A single-center parallel randomized controlled pilot trial was conducted in high-risk cardiac patients to assess adherence to two transfusion strategies. Fifty patients were randomly assigned either to a "restrictive" transfusion strategy (RBCs if their Hb concentration was 70 g/L or less intraoperatively during cardiopulmonary bypass [CPB] and 75 g/L or less postoperatively) or a "liberal" transfusion strategy (RBCs if their Hb concentration was 95 g/L or less during CPB and less than 100 g/L postoperatively). RESULTS The percentage of adherence overall was 84% in the restrictive arm and 41% in the liberal arm. Twenty-two (88%) patients were transfused 99 units of RBCs in the liberal group compared to 13 patients who were transfused 50 units in the restrictive group (p<0.01). There were no significant differences in individual adverse outcomes; however, more adverse events occurred in the restrictive group (38 vs. 15, p<0.01). CONCLUSION Adherence to the evaluated interventions is vital to all randomized controlled trials as it has the potential to affect outcomes. Further pilot studies are required to optimize enrollment and transfusion adherence before a definitive study is conducted. 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.
The Age of Blood Evaluation (ABLE) randomized controlled trial: study design
Transfusion Medicine Reviews. 2011;25((3):):197-205.
Red blood cells (RBCs) are transfused to treat anemia and to maintain oxygen delivery to vital organs during critical illness. Laboratory and observational studies have raised the possibility that prolonged RBC storage may adversely affect clinical outcomes. Compared with RBCs stored less than 1 week, there are no clinical data demonstrating that RBCs stored longer remain as effective at carrying or releasing oxygen, and observational studies have risen to possibility that prolonged RBC storage might result in harm to vulnerable patients requiring blood transfusions. The Age of Blood Evaluation(ABLE) study (ISRCTN44878718) is a double-blind, multicenter, parallel randomized controlled clinical trial. It will test the hypothesis that the transfusion of prestorage leukoreduced RBCs stored for 7 days or less (fresh arm) as compared with standard-issue RBCs stored, on average, 15 to 20 days (control arm) will lead to lower 90-day all-cause mortality and reduced morbidity in critically ill adults. We include adults in intensive care units (ICUs) who (1) have had a request for a first RBC unit transfusion during the first 7 days of ICU admission and (2) have an anticipated requirement for ongoing invasive and noninvasive mechanical ventilation exceeding 48 hours. Enrolled patients are randomized at the time of transfusion to receive either standard-issue RBC units or RBCs stored 7 days or less issued by the local hospital transfusion service. The primary outcome is 90-day all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes include ICU and hospital mortality, organ failure, and serious nosocomial infections. With 2510 patients, we will be able to detect a 5% absolute risk reduction (from 25% to 20%). The ABLE study is currently enrolling patients in 23 university-affiliated and community-hospital ICUs across Canada; sites in France and United Kingdom are expected to start recruitment in 2011. Regardless of the results, ABLE study will have significant implications on the duration of RBC storage. A negative trial will reassure clinicians and blood bankers regarding the effectiveness and safety of standard-issue RBCs. A positive trial will have significant implications with respect to inventory management of RBCs given to critically ill adults with a high risk of mortality and will also prompt research to better understand the RBC storage lesion in the hopes of minimizing its clinical consequences through the development of better storage methods.
Transfusion requirements in cardiovascular surgery (TRICI)
Blood. 2010;116((21):): Abstract No. 1114.
The age of red blood cells in premature infants (ARIPI) randomized controlled trial: study design
Transfusion Medicine Reviews. 2009;23((1):):55-61.
Despite recent trends in decreasing transfusion thresholds and the development of technologies designed to avoid allogeneic exposure, allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusions remain an important supportive and life-saving measure for neonatal intensive care patients experiencing illness and anemia. Reluctantly, a number of laboratory and observational studies have indicated that the amount of time RBCs are stored can affect oxygen delivery to tissues. Consequently, older RBCs may result in higher rates of organ dysfunction, nosocomial infection, and lengths of stay. Because of such harmful effects, an evaluation of the association between age of blood and nosocomial infection and organ dysfunction is warranted. The aim of the study was to determine if RBCs stored for 7 days or less (fresh RBCs) compared to current standard transfusion practice decreases major nosocomial infection and organ dysfunction in neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit and requiring at least one RBC transfusion. This study is a double-blind, multicenter, randomized controlled trial design. The trial will be an effectiveness study evaluating the effectiveness of stored vs fresh RBCs in neonates requiring transfusion. Neonatal patients requiring at least one unit of RBCs will be randomized to receive either (1) RBCs stored no longer than 7 days or (2) standard practice. The study was conducted in Canadian university-affiliated level III (tertiary) neonatal intensive care units. The primary outcome for this study will be a composite measure of major neonatal morbidities (necrotizing enterocolitis, retinopathy of prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage, and mortality). Secondary outcomes include individual items of the composite measure and nosocomial infection (bacteremia, septic shock, and pneumonia). The sample size calculations have been estimated based on the formula for 2 independent proportions using an alpha of . 05, a (1-beta) of . 80, and a 10% noncompliance factor. The baseline rate for our composite measure is estimated to be 65% as indicated by the literature. Assuming a 15% absolute risk reduction with the use of RBCs stored 7 days or less, our estimated total sample size required will be 450 (225 patients per treatment arm). The Age of Red Blood Cells in Premature Infants (ARIPI) trial is registered at the US National Institutes of Health (ClinicalTrials. gov) no. NCT00326924 and current controlled trials ISRCTN65939658.
Use of intravenous immunoglobulin for treatment of recurrent miscarriage: a systematic review
BJOG: an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2007;114((2):):134-42.
BACKGROUND Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is a fractionated blood product whose off-label use for treating a variety of conditions, including spontaneous recurrent miscarriage, has continued to grow in recent years. Its high costs and short supply necessitate improved guidance on its appropriate applications. OBJECTIVE We conducted a systematic review of randomised controlled trials evaluating IVIG for treatment of spontaneous recurrent miscarriage. SEARCH STRATEGY A systematic search strategy was applied to Medline (1966 to June 2005) and the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials (June 2005). SELECTION CRITERIA We included all randomised controlled trials comparing all dosages of IVIG to placebo or an active control. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Two investigators independently extracted data using a standardised data collection form. Measures of effect were derived for each trial independently, and studies were pooled based on clinical and methodologic appropriateness. MAIN RESULTS We identified eight trials involving 442 women that evaluated IVIG therapy used to treat recurrent miscarriage. Overall, IVIG did not significantly increase the odds ratio (OR) of live birth when compared with placebo for treatment of recurrent miscarriage (OR 1.28, 95% CI 0.78-2.10). There was, however, a significant increase in live births following IVIG use in women with secondary recurrent miscarriage (OR 2.71, 95% CI 1.09-6.73), while those with primary miscarriage did not experience the same benefit (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.35-1.26). AUTHOR'S CONCLUSIONS IVIG increased the rates of live birth in secondary recurrent miscarriage, but there was insufficient evidence for its use in primary recurrent miscarriage.