The safety of activated eptacog beta in the management of bleeding episodes and perioperative haemostasis in adult and paediatric haemophilia patients with inhibitors
Haemophilia : the official journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia. 2021
INTRODUCTION Haemophilia patients with inhibitors often require a bypassing agent (BPA) for bleeding episode management. Eptacog beta (EB) is a new FDA-approved recombinant activated human factor VII BPA for the treatment and control of bleeding in haemophilia A or B patients with inhibitors (≥12 years of age). We describe here the EB safety profile from the three prospective Phase 3 clinical trials performed to date. AIM: To assess EB safety, immunogenicity and thrombotic potential in children and adults who received EB for treatment of bleeding and perioperative care. METHODS Using a randomized crossover design, 27 subjects in PERSEPT 1 (12-54 years) and 25 subjects in PERSEPT 2 (1-11 years) treated bleeding episodes with 75 or 225 μg/kg EB initially followed by 75 μg/kg dosing at predefined intervals as determined by clinical response. Twelve PERSEPT 3 subjects (2-56 years) received an initial preoperative infusion of 75 μg/kg (minor procedures) or 200 μg/kg EB (major surgeries) with subsequent 75 μg/kg doses administered intraoperatively and post-operatively as indicated. Descriptive statistics were used for data analyses. RESULTS Sixty subjects who received 3388 EB doses in three trials were evaluated. EB was well tolerated, with no allergic, hypersensitivity, anaphylactic or thrombotic events reported and no neutralizing anti-EB antibodies detected. A death occurred during PERSEPT 3 and was determined to be unlikely related to EB treatment by the data monitoring committee. CONCLUSION Results from all three Phase 3 trials establish an excellent safety profile of EB in haemophilia A or B patients with inhibitors for treatment of bleeding and perioperative use.
Recombinant FVIIa in elective non-orthopaedic surgery of adults with haemophilia and inhibitors: A systematic literature review
Haemophilia : the official journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia. 2021
AIM: To assess available evidence on the use of rFVIIa in non-orthopaedic surgery including dental surgery in adult patients with congenital haemophilia with inhibitors (PWHI). METHODS A systematic literature search was performed according to a prespecified search string; prespecified criteria were used to select applicable studies including PWHI ≥18 years of age who underwent any non-orthopaedic surgery using rFVIIa. RESULTS Thirty-three publications met the eligibility criteria, of which 26 publications - including 46 procedures in 44 patients - were selected for the qualitative analysis. Most publications were case reports or case series (21/26). Primary authors assessed rFVIIa as effective in maintaining haemostasis during and after most major surgeries (22/32). rFVIIa dose was mainly on label, with higher doses used in 4 cases, and a lower dose in 1 case. Duration of treatment was mostly 5-10 days (range: 3 days to 1 month post-operatively). Adverse events related to rFVIIa were rare. CONCLUSIONS Assessing non-orthopaedic surgery in this patient population is hampered by a paucity of published data; nevertheless, the current evidence indicates that rFVIIa is effective in achieving haemostasis in haemophilia patients with inhibitors undergoing elective non-orthopaedic or dental surgery. rFVIIa was generally well tolerated in these patients, with thrombotic events occurring rarely. These data, generated to help clinicians manage congenital haemophilia with inhibitors, highlight the need for more systematic reporting of rFVIIa and all other therapeutic agents in non-orthopaedic surgery and dental surgery in patients with congenital haemophilia and inhibitors.
Pharmacokinetic characteristics of factor VIII and IX concentrates – a systematic review
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis. 2015;13((Suppl. 2)):357.. Abstract No. PO262-MON.
Plasma extraction rate and collection efficiency during therapeutic plasma exchange with Spectra Optia in comparison with Haemonetics MCS+
Journal of Clinical Apheresis. 2011;26((1):):17-22.
For therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), continuous and intermittent flow separators are known to be efficient. This study was undertaken to compare the performances of the Spectra Optia, a continuous flow centrifugal apheresis system recently developed by CaridianBCT, with the Haemonetics Multicomponents System (MCS)+ apheresis system based on intermittent flow centrifugation. The primary objective of the study was to compare the time required to exchange one total plasma volume with both separators. The secondary objectives were to determine the plasma exchange efficiency, the plasma extraction rate, the percentage of target exchange volume achieved, and the loss of cellular components. The study involved prospectively paired comparison of 16 TPE on each device performed in patients with chronic diseases treated with TPE. The time required to exchange 1 total plasma volume was 182 ± 36 minutes for MCS+ procedures and 100 ± 20 minutes for the Spectra Optia procedures (P < 0.05, all results presented as mean ± standard deviation). A significantly higher plasma extraction rate was achieved (30.2 ± 4.3 vs 16.8 ± 3.4 mL/min, respectively, P < 0.05), and the plasma exchange efficiency was slightly better with the Spectra Optia compared with the MCS+ procedures (83.4 ± 7.0 vs 80.0 ± 8.5%, P < 0.05). The platelet loss was significantly lower with the Spectra Optia compared with the MCS+ procedures (1.6 ± 2.3 vs 7.5 ± 4.2%, respectively, P < 0.05), whereas the red blood cells loss was comparable. In conclusion, the Spectra Optia has significantly higher extraction rate and exchange efficiency than the MCS+ allowing to remove the same amount of plasma in less time, by processing less blood. It also removes significantly less platelets than the MCS+ separator.
ReFacto and Advate: a single-dose, randomized, two-period crossover pharmacokinetics study in subjects with haemophilia A
ReFacto is a recombinant B-domain-deleted, monoclonal antibody-purified, solvent-detergent-treated factor VIII (BDDrFVIII) with no albumin added to the final formulation. Although ReFacto has been shown to be bioequivalent to a plasma-derived FVIII product (Hemophil-M) in a randomized, crossover pharmacokinetic (PK) study, the comparability of ReFacto with the full-length (complete sequence) recombinant FVIII (FLrFVIII, Advate) product has not been previously examined in this manner. The primary objective of this study was to compare the PKs of ReFacto with those of Advate in patients with severe haemophilia A. This was a third-party unblinded, randomized, multicentre, two-period crossover PKs study of ReFacto and Advate in subjects with severe haemophilia A (FVIIIC < or =1%). Blood samples were collected over a 48-h period after i. v. administration of each of the FVIII products. FVIIIC was determined using the chromogenic substrate assay (CSA) in a central laboratory. The plasma FVIIIC PK parameters of ReFacto and Advate were determined using non-compartmental analysis. Bioequivalence was assessed on maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) and the area under the plasma concentration vs. time curves (AUCs) using an anova. The two products were judged to be equivalent if the 90% confidence limits of the ratio of the geometric mean values of C(max) and AUCs fell within the interval of 80-125%. Results from this PKs comparison of two different rFVIII products, using chromogenic substrate assay to measure FVIIIC, showed that ReFacto and Advate are bioequivalent to each other.
Priming solutions for cardiopulmonary bypass: comparison of three colloids
Journal of Cardiothoracic & Vascular Anesthesia. 1991;5((5):):457-66.
The present study was designed to compare the differences in the clinical effects of three colloidal solutions, albumin, urea-linked gelatin, and succinyl-linked gelatin, when used as priming fluids for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) under alpha-stat conditions. A consecutive series of 105 patients scheduled for cardiac surgery were randomized into three identically managed groups, except for the CPB prime. Variables relating to acid-base status, oncotic activity, metabolism, coagulation, and postoperative evaluation were measured. Marked differences in acid-base status, colloid osmotic pressure, additional prime requirements, blood lactate, urine output, and the need for buffer solutions occurred among groups, with the succinyl-linked gelatin group having better results than the other groups. Changes in hemodynamics, oxygen consumption, and blood-glucose levels during CPB did not vary among groups. There were also no important intergroup differences in hematologic and clotting variables or postoperative parameters such as blood loss or use of blood products. Electrolyte changes were similar except for a significant increase in ionized calcium that occurred in the urea-linked gelatin group after bypass. The results indicate that succinyl-linked gelatin is an adequate and safe alternative to human albumin for use as a colloid during CPB under alpha-stat conditions.