Additive solution-7 reduces the red blood cell cold storage lesion
BACKGROUND Transfusion of long-stored red blood cells (RBCs) is associated with decreased in vivo RBC recovery, delivery of RBC breakdown products, and increased morbidity and mortality. Reducing the burden of this RBC "storage lesion" is a major challenge in transfusion medicine. Additive solution-7 (AS-7) is a new RBC storage solution designed to improve RBC metabolism by providing phosphate and increasing buffering capacity. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Storage quality in AS-7 was measured in a prospective, randomized, three-center trial using units of whole blood from healthy human subjects whose RBCs were stored for up to 56 days in AS-7 (n=120) or for 42 days in the control solution AS-1 (n=60). RESULTS Hemolysis and shedding of protein-containing microvesicles were significantly reduced in RBCs stored in AS-7 for 42 and 56 days compared with RBCs stored in AS-1. Autologous in vivo recoveries of RBCs stored in AS-7 was 88+/-5% at 42 days (n=27) and 82+/-3% at 56 days (n=27), exceeding recoveries of RBCs stored in currently used solutions. CONCLUSION Increasing the phosphate, pH range, and buffer capacity of a RBC storage system allowed RBCs to be stored better and longer than currently approved storage systems. AS-7 ameliorates the long-term storage lesion resulting in significantly increased viability in vitro and in vivo.Copyright 2014 AABB.
In vitro and in vivo quality of leukoreduced apheresis platelets stored in a new platelet additive solution
BACKGROUND Platelets (PLTs) stored in additive solutions (PASs) may reduce the risk of several plasma-associated adverse transfusion reactions such as allergic reactions and potentially transfusion-associated lung injury. The objective of this study was to determine the in vitro characteristics and the in vivo radiolabeled recovery and survival of apheresis PLTs (APs) stored in a new PAS and compare the latter to Food and Drug Administration (FDA) criteria. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Hyperconcentrated APs were collected from healthy subjects in a paired crossover study comparing PAS (35% plasma) and 100% plasma-stored APs (Part 1) up to 7 days and, in Part 2, to determine the in vivo recovery and survival of PAS stored AP at 5 days compared to fresh PLT controls. In vitro and in vivo assays were performed following standard methods. RESULTS Sixty-six and 25 evaluable subjects successfully completed Parts 1 and 2, respectively. pH for PAS AP was maintained above 6.6 for 5 days of storage. P-selectin values were consistent with published values for commonly transfused PLT products. The PAS in vivo PLT recovery (54.3+/-8.1%) was 86.7% of the fresh control, and survival (6.4+/-1.3 days) was 78.0% of the fresh control, both meeting the FDA performance criteria. CONCLUSION APs stored in PAS with 35% plasma carryover maintained pH over 5 days of storage and met current FDA criteria for radiolabeled recovery and survival. The use of PAS for storage of single-donor PLTs in clinical practice represents an acceptable transfusion product that reduces the volume of plasma associated with PLT transfusion. 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.
Improved separation in plasmapheresis using the High Separation core
Vox Sanguinis. 2002;83((Suppl 1):):185. Abstract No. P-555.
Transfusion to blood group A and O patients of group B RBCs that have been enzymatically converted to group O
BACKGROUND The transfusion of ABO-incompatible RBCs is the leading cause of fatal transfusion reactions. Group O RBCs, lacking terminal immunodominant A and B sugars to which humans are immunized, are safe for transfusion to persons of any ABO blood group. With the use of a recombinant alpha-galactosidase to remove terminal galactose from group B RBCs, the safety and efficacy of enzyme-converted group-B-to-group-O (ECO) RBC components were studied in transfusion-dependent patients. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Twenty-four patients (blood groups A and O) were randomly assigned to receive transfusion(s) of either ECO or control group O RBCs. If a second transfusion was given, the other blood component was administered. RESULTS Twenty-one patients were given ECO RBCs; 18 also underwent control transfusions. One patient received only a small aliquot for RBC survival studies, instead of a full-unit transfusion, because his serum was incompatible with ECO RBCs. No adverse events occurred. Both ECO and control transfusions resulted in appropriate Hb increments and comparable (51)Cr-labeled RBC survival studies. One patient developed a transient, weak-positive DAT, without hemolysis. Two weeks after transfusion, 5 of 19 evaluable ECO RBC recipients had increases in anti-B titers. CONCLUSION ECO RBCs were comparable to group O cells for safety and efficacy in this study. The clinical significance of the increase in anti-B and of occasional serologic incompatibilities with ECO RBCs is unclear. If strategies can be developed to remove A epitopes, enzymatic conversion could be used to create a universal (group O) donor blood supply.