Effect of Convalescent Plasma on Organ Support-Free Days in Critically Ill Patients With COVID-19: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Estcourt LJ, Turgeon AF, McQuilten ZK, McVerry BJ, Al-Beidh F, Annane D, Arabi YM, Arnold DM, Beane A, Bégin P, et al
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IMPORTANCE The evidence for benefit of convalescent plasma for critically ill patients with COVID-19 is inconclusive. OBJECTIVE To determine whether convalescent plasma would improve outcomes for critically ill adults with COVID-19. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS The ongoing Randomized, Embedded, Multifactorial, Adaptive Platform Trial for Community-Acquired Pneumonia (REMAP-CAP) enrolled and randomized 4763 adults with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 between March 9, 2020, and January 18, 2021, within at least 1 domain; 2011 critically ill adults were randomized to open-label interventions in the immunoglobulin domain at 129 sites in 4 countries. Follow-up ended on April 19, 2021. INTERVENTIONS The immunoglobulin domain randomized participants to receive 2 units of high-titer, ABO-compatible convalescent plasma (total volume of 550 mL ± 150 mL) within 48 hours of randomization (n = 1084) or no convalescent plasma (n = 916). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary ordinal end point was organ support-free days (days alive and free of intensive care unit-based organ support) up to day 21 (range, -1 to 21 days; patients who died were assigned -1 day). The primary analysis was an adjusted bayesian cumulative logistic model. Superiority was defined as the posterior probability of an odds ratio (OR) greater than 1 (threshold for trial conclusion of superiority >99%). Futility was defined as the posterior probability of an OR less than 1.2 (threshold for trial conclusion of futility >95%). An OR greater than 1 represented improved survival, more organ support-free days, or both. The prespecified secondary outcomes included in-hospital survival; 28-day survival; 90-day survival; respiratory support-free days; cardiovascular support-free days; progression to invasive mechanical ventilation, extracorporeal mechanical oxygenation, or death; intensive care unit length of stay; hospital length of stay; World Health Organization ordinal scale score at day 14; venous thromboembolic events at 90 days; and serious adverse events. RESULTS Among the 2011 participants who were randomized (median age, 61 [IQR, 52 to 70] years and 645/1998 [32.3%] women), 1990 (99%) completed the trial. The convalescent plasma intervention was stopped after the prespecified criterion for futility was met. The median number of organ support-free days was 0 (IQR, -1 to 16) in the convalescent plasma group and 3 (IQR, -1 to 16) in the no convalescent plasma group. The in-hospital mortality rate was 37.3% (401/1075) for the convalescent plasma group and 38.4% (347/904) for the no convalescent plasma group and the median number of days alive and free of organ support was 14 (IQR, 3 to 18) and 14 (IQR, 7 to 18), respectively. The median-adjusted OR was 0.97 (95% credible interval, 0.83 to 1.15) and the posterior probability of futility (OR <1.2) was 99.4% for the convalescent plasma group compared with the no convalescent plasma group. The treatment effects were consistent across the primary outcome and the 11 secondary outcomes. Serious adverse events were reported in 3.0% (32/1075) of participants in the convalescent plasma group and in 1.3% (12/905) of participants in the no convalescent plasma group. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Among critically ill adults with confirmed COVID-19, treatment with 2 units of high-titer, ABO-compatible convalescent plasma had a low likelihood of providing improvement in the number of organ support-free days. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02735707.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2: implications for blood safety and sufficiency
Critically ill patients with COVID-19 from 129 sites in 4 countries, enrolled in the ongoing REMAP-CAP trial (n= 2,011).
2 units of high-titre, ABO-compatible convalescent plasma (n= 1,084).
No convalescent plasma (n= 916).
The median number of organ support-free days was 0 in the convalescent plasma group and 3 in the no convalescent plasma group. The in-hospital mortality rate was 37.3% for the convalescent plasma group and 38.4% for the no convalescent plasma group and the median number of days alive and free of organ support was 14 and 14, respectively. Serious adverse events were reported in 3% of participants in the convalescent plasma group and in 1.3% of participants in the no convalescent plasma group.
Kiely P, Hoad VC, Seed CR, Gosbell IB
Vox Sang. 2020
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BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel coronavirus, first identified in China at the end of 2019 and has now caused a worldwide pandemic. In this review, we provide an overview of the implications of SARS-CoV-2 for blood safety and sufficiency. MATERIAL AND METHOD We searched the PubMed database, the preprint sites bioRxiv and medRxiv, the websites of the World Health Organization, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, the US Communicable Diseases Center and monitored ProMed updates. RESULTS An estimated 15%-46% of SARS-CoV-2 infections are asymptomatic. The reported mean incubation period is 3 to 7 days with a range of 1-14 days. The blood phase of SARS-CoV-2 appears to be brief and low level, with RNAaemia detectable in only a small proportion of patients, typically associated with more severe disease and not demonstrated to be infectious virus. An asymptomatic blood phase has not been demonstrated. Given these characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the absence of reported transfusion transmission (TT), the TT risk is currently theoretical. To mitigate any potential TT risk, but more importantly to prevent respiratory transmission in donor centres, blood centres can implement donor deferral policies based on travel, disease status or potential risk of exposure. CONCLUSION The TT risk of SARS-CoV-2 appears to be low. The biggest risk to blood services in the current COVID-19 pandemic is to maintain the sufficiency of the blood supply while minimizing respiratory transmission of SARS-CoV-19 to donors and staff while donating blood.