The cost-effectiveness of tranexamic acid for treatment of postpartum hemorrhage: A systematic review
International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 2021
BACKGROUND Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is responsible for nearly one quarter of maternal deaths. A 2017 multicountry trial found that incorporating tranexamic acid (TXA) into the PPH management package was effective in reducing maternal death due to bleeding. OBJECTIVE To systematically review studies assessing the cost-effectiveness of tranexamic acid for PPH treatment. SEARCH STRATEGY Nine databases were searched using variations of keywords 'tranexamic acid', 'postpartum hemorrhage' and 'cost effectiveness'. SELECTION CRITERIA Eligible studies were any type of economic or effectiveness evaluation studies on tranexamic acid for treating women with PPH. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Two reviewers independently screened citations and extracted data on cost effectiveness measures. Quality was assessed using the Consensus on Health Economic Criteria list. MAIN RESULTS Four studies were included, of which two were abstracts. Three studies concluded that early administration of TXA was cost-saving or cost-effective. One abstract reported TXA was not cost-effective in the USA unless the probability of death due to hemorrhage is higher. CONCLUSION Available evidence (four studies in three countries) suggests that this life-saving intervention may be below willingness to pay thresholds (cost-effective) or cost saving. Further studies conducted in different populations and settings are needed to inform health policy decision-making to reduce PPH-associated morbidity and mortality.
Intravenous oxytocin dosing regimens for postpartum hemorrhage prevention at cesarean section: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Women with post-partum haemorrhage (PPH), (4 studies).
Systematic review assessing the cost-effectiveness of tranexamic acid (TXA) for PPH treatment.
Three studies concluded that early administration of TXA was cost-saving or cost-effective. One abstract reported TXA was not cost-effective in the USA unless the probability of death due to haemorrhage was higher.
American journal of obstetrics and gynecology. 2021
OBJECTIVE To synthesize available evidence on intravenous (IV) oxytocin dosing regimens for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) at cesarean section (CS). DATA SOURCES We searched Medline/OVID, Embase, Global Index Medicus, CINAHL, CENTRAL, ClinicalTrials.gov, and ICTRP for eligible studies published until Feb 2020. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA We included any randomized or non-randomized study published in peer-reviewed journals that compared at least two different dosing regimens of IV oxytocin for PPH prevention in women undergoing CS. STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS Two authors independently assessed eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. Primary outcome was incidence of PPH ≥ 1000 mL. Other review outcomes included use of additional uterotonics, blood loss, and adverse maternal events. Data were analyzed based on type of IV administration (bolus only, infusion only, bolus plus infusion) and oxytocin dose. Meta-analysis was performed using randomized trials and reported using risk ratios or mean difference with 95% confidence intervals. GRADE was used to rate the certainty of evidence. Findings from dose-finding trials and non-randomized studies were reported narratively. RESULTS Thirty-five studies (7,333 women) met our inclusion criteria, including 30 randomized trials and five non-randomized studies. There were limited data from trials for most outcomes, and results were not conclusive. Compared to bolus plus infusion regimens, bolus only regimens probably result in slightly higher mean blood loss (MD 52 mL, 95% CI 0.4-104 mL, moderate certainty). Amongst bolus plus infusion regimens, initial bolus doses < 5 IU may reduce nausea (RR 0.26, 95% CI 0.11-0.63, low certainty) as compared to 5-9 IU. Total oxytocin doses 5-9 IU versus 10-19 IU may increase use of additional uterotonics (RR 13.00, 95% CI 1.75-96.37, low certainty). Effects on other outcomes were generally inconclusive. CONCLUSION There are limited data comparing IV oxytocin regimens for PPH prevention at CS. Bolus plus infusion regimens may lead to minor reductions in mean blood loss, and initial bolus doses of < 5 IU may minimize nausea. Bolus only regimens of 10 IU versus 5 IU may decrease use of additional uterotonics, however further comparative trials are required to understand effects on other key outcomes, particularly hypotension.