Roxadustat for the treatment of anemia in patients with chronic kidney diseases: a meta-analysis
BACKGROUND Anemia is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Treating renal anemia with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) or erythropoietin analogs is effective but has side effects. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to assess the efficacy and safety of roxadustat in treating CKD-induced anemia. METHODS We searched publications online and conducted a meta-analysis and calculated relative risks with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for dichotomous data and mean differences (MD) with 95% CIs for continuous data. RESULTS Of 110 articles, nine were included that contained 12 data sets and 11 randomized control trials on roxadustat. In the non-dialysis-dependent (NDD) high-dose/low-dose subgroups, the change in hemoglobin (Hb) levels was significantly higher in the roxadustat group than in the placebo group (P<0.0001, P=0.001, respectively). The Hb response rate of the roxadustat is higher in the NDD subgroup than in the placebo group (P<0.00001, MD=6.92, 95% CI: 4.03, 11.89). However, in the dialysis-dependent subgroup, there was no significant difference in the change in Hb levels or the Hb response rate between the roxadustat and ESA groups. There was no change in the mortality in the roxadustat group compared to that in the placebo/ESA group. Hyperkalemia may be a side effect of roxadustat. CONCLUSIONS Roxadustat elevated the serum Hb levels in a manner similar to that observed for ESAs. Roxadustat raised the Hb levels more significantly than the placebo and showed a higher Hb response rate than the placebo group in NDD patients. Roxadustat is a safe and effective drug for anemia in CKD patients.
Effect of platelet-rich fibrin on alveolar ridge preservation: A systematic review
Patients with chronic kidney disease-induced anaemia (9 studies).
Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) or erythropoietin analogues or placebo.
In the non-dialysis-dependent (NDD) high-dose/low-dose subgroups, the change in haemoglobin (Hb) levels was significantly higher in the roxadustat group than in the placebo group. The Hb response rate of the roxadustat is higher in the NDD subgroup than in the placebo group (MD=6.92). In the dialysis-dependent subgroup, there was no significant difference in the change in Hb levels or the Hb response rate between the roxadustat and ESA groups. There was no change in the mortality in the roxadustat group compared to that in the placebo/ESA group.
Journal of the American Dental Association (1939). 2019;150(9):766-778
BACKGROUND Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is the second generation of platelet concentrates and is used in many areas of dentistry. However, whether PRF is effective for alveolar ridge preservation remains controversial. The authors conducted research to evaluate the potential of PRF to preserve the alveolar ridge. METHODS A comprehensive literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Embase. Only randomized controlled trials were included. A systematic review was made for postoperative pain, soft-tissue healing, bone density, horizontal and vertical ridge dimension changes, and histologic analysis. The meta-analysis was performed on the alveolar osteitis, mesial and distal bone height changes, and bone fill with Review Manager Version 5.3 software. RESULTS Among the 588 eligible articles found in the initial search, 7 published studies from 2012 through 2019 were included. The authors' qualitative analysis showed that PRF may play a positive role in reducing postoperative pain and ridge dimension changes after tooth extraction. Among the 7 articles, only 2 trials assessed the effect of PRF on the alveolar osteitis, mesial and distal bone height changes, and bone fill. Results of our meta-analysis showed that smaller mesial bone height changes (standard mean difference, -1.07; 95% confidence interval, -1.92 to 0.22) and a greater percentage of bone fill (standard mean difference, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.32 to 1.33) were observed in the PRF group. CONCLUSIONS Given the potential value of PRF, consideration should be given to PRF after tooth extraction. However, more high-quality trials are necessary to evaluate the exact role of PRF. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS Based on the authors' results, the usage of PRF was suggested in alveolar ridge preservation.
The Additional Effect of Autologous Platelet Concentrates to Coronally Advanced Flap in the Treatment of Gingival Recessions: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
BioMed research international. 2019;2019:2587245
Background: To improve the efficacy of regenerative treatment for gingival recessions, the autologous platelet concentrates (APCs) combined with coronally advanced flap (CAF) have been investigated. However, few studies systematically assess the complementary effect of APCs in periodontal regeneration. The present study aims to evaluate the additional effect of different types of APCs to CAF in the treatment of gingival recessions. Methods: Electronic databases (EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trails) and relevant journals were searched until May 15, 2019. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in English were included. Outcome variables include root coverage (RC), recession depth (RD), clinical attachment level (CAL), keratinized tissue width (KTW), and gingival thickness (GT). Data were analyzed with Revman5.3. The estimate of effect sizes was expressed as the mean differences and the 95% confidence interval. Results: 8 RCTs involving 170 patients (328 sites) were included. Our meta-analysis indicated RC, RD, CAL, KTW, and GT were better improved in the CAF plus APCs groups than the CAF alone. The subgroup analyses revealed that platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) brought significant improvement in RC, RD, CAL, and GT. Concentrated growth factors (CGF) lead clinic beneficial in CAL, KTW, and GT. No significant effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) could be found in any clinical parameters when combined with CAF. Conclusions: PRF could exert additional effect to CAF; the preferred treatment for gingival recessions was considered. Based on the limited studies, it seemed that PRP failed to show any additional effect and it was not suggested for gingival recessions. Given the limited research and high risk of bias, it is still needed to confirm the additional effect of CGF by more high-quality studies.